conservation of plants and animal

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Contents Deforestation and Its Causes Consequences of Deforestation droughts. Desertification Sanctuary National Park Biosphere Reserve Protected Areas for Conservation Flora and Fauna Endemic Species Species Red Data Book Migration

Deforestation and Its Causes :

Deforestation and Its Causes A great variety of plants and animals exist on earth. They are essential for the well-being and survival of mankind. Today, a major threat to survival of these organisms is deforestation. We know that deforestation means clearing of forests and using that land for other purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for some of the purposes mentioned below 1.Procuring land for cultivation. 2. Building houses and factories 3. Making furniture or using wood as fuel Some natural causes of deforestation are forest fires and severe droughts.

some Deforestation and Its Causes :

some Deforestation and Its Causes

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Consequences of Deforestation Paheli and Boojho recalled the consequences of deforestation. They remembered that deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level on the earth. It increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water level also gets lowered. They know that deforestation disturbs the balance in nature. They were told by Professor Ahmad that if cutting of trees continues, rainfall and the fertility of the soil will decrease. Moreover, there will be increased chances of natural calamities such as floods and droughts.

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Recall that plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees would mean that less carbon dioxide will be used up resulting in its increased amount in the atmosphere. This will lead to global warming as carbon dioxide traps the heat rays reflected by the earth. The increase in temperature on the earth disturbs the water cycle and may reduce rainfall. This could cause droughts. Deforestation is a major cause which leads to the change in soil properties. Physical properties of the soil get affected by plantation and vegetation. Recall from Class VII how trees prevent soil erosion. Fewer trees result in more soil erosion. Removal of the top layer of the soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky layers. This soil has less humus and is less fertile. Gradually the fertile land gets converted into deserts. It is called desertification.

Some consequences of deforestation:

Some consequences of deforestation


droughts Drought  is an extended period when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply whether surface or underground water. [ citation needed ]  A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. [1]  Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average  precipitation . It can have a substantial impact on the  ecosystem and  agriculture  of the affected region. Although droughts can persist for several years, even a short, intense drought can cause significant damage [2]  and harm to the local  economy . [3] Prolonged drought has caused cause  mass migrations  and humanitarian crises.

Photos of droughts:

Photos of droughts

Desertification :

Desertification Deforestation is a major cause which. Leads to the change in soil properties. Physical properties of the soil get affected by plantation and vegetation. Recall from Class VII how trees prevent soil erosion. Fewer trees result in more soil erosion. Removal of the top layer of the soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky layers. This soil has less humus and is less fertile. Gradually the fertile land gets converted into deserts. It is called desertification. Deforestation also leads to a decrease in the water holding capacity of the soil. The movement of water from the soil surface into the ground (infiltration rate) is reduced. So, there are floods. The other properties of the soil like nutrient content, texture etc., also change because of deforestation.

Some Desertification :

Some Desertification

Sanctuary :

Sanctuary India has 515   animal sanctuaries , referred to as  Wildlife sanctuaries ( IUCN  Category IV  Protected Area ). Among these, the 41  Tiger Reserves  are governed by  Project Tiger , and are of special significance in the conservation of the  tiger . Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named  Bird Sanctuary , e.g.  Keoladeo National Park before attaining National Park status. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries are of national importance to conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species, are named  National Wildlife Sanctuary , like the tri- state National Chambal ( Gharial ) Wildlife Sanctuary  for conserving the  gharial .  

Sanctuaries :


Sanctuaries :


National Park:

National Park A  national park  is a  park  in use for  conservation  purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. [1]  Further more, an international organization, the  International Union for Conservation of Nature  (IUCN), and its  World Commission on Protected Areas , has defined "National Park" as its Category  II  type of  protected areas . While ideas for this type of national park had been suggested previously, the United States established the first such one,  Yellowstone National Park , in 1872. The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the  Northeast Greenland National Park , which was established in 1974. According to the IUCN, there were 6,555 national parks worldwide in 2006 that meet its criteria. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park.

Biosphere Reserve :

Biosphere Reserve A biosphere reserve is an  area  proposed by its residents, ratified by a  national committee , and designated by  UNESCO ’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) program, which demonstrates innovative approaches to living and working in harmony with nature . One of the primary objectives of MAB is to achieve a sustainable balance between the goals of conserving  biological diversity , promoting economic development, and maintaining associated cultural values.

Protected Areas for Conservation :

Protected Areas for Conservation Protected areas  or  natural parks  are locations which receive protection because of their recognised natural,  ecological  and/or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organisations involved. The term "protected area" also includes Marine Protected Areas , the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, and  Transboundary Protected Areas  that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic 

Flora and Fauna :

Flora and Fauna As the children walk around the biosphere reserve they appreciate the green wealth of the forest. They are very happy to see tall teak trees and animals inside the forest. Suddenly, Paheli finds a rabbit and wants to catch it. She starts running after it. Professor Ahmad stops her. He explains that animals are comfortable and happy in their own habitat. We should not disturb them. Madhavji explains that some animals and plants typically belong to a particular area. The plants and animals found in a particular area are termed flora and fauna of that area.

Flora and Fauna:

Flora and Fauna

Endemic Species :

Endemic Species Soon the group quietly enters the deep forest. Children are surprised to see a very big squirrel. This squirrel has a big fluffy tail. They are very curious to know about it. Madhavji tells them that this is known as the giant squirrel and is endemic to this area. Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area. They are not naturally found anywhere else. A particular type of animal or plant may be endemic to a zone, a state or a country. Madhavji shows sal and wild mango

Some Endemic Species :

Some Endemic Species

Some Endemic Species :

Some Endemic Species

Species :

Species In  biology , a  species  (plural: species) is one of the basic units of  biological classification  and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of  organisms  capable of interbreeding  and  producing   fertile   offspring . While in many cases this definition is adequate, the difficulty of defining species is known as the  species problem . Differing measures are often used, such as similarity of DNA, morphology, or ecological niche. Presence of specific locally adapted traits may further subdivide species into " infraspecific taxa " such as  subspecies  (and in  botany  other  taxa  are used, such as  varieties , subvarieties , and  formae ).

Some species :

Some species

Red Data Book :

Red Data Book Critically Endangered species in India According to the  Red Data Book   of International Union for Conservation of Nature  (IUCN), there are 47 critically endangered species in India (As of 5 September 2011): [1] The Red List of 2012 was released at the Rio +20 Earth Summit. It contains 132 species of plants and animals in India listed as critically endangered. [2][3][4] Birds

some Red date book:

some Red date book

Migration :

Migration Bird migration  is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a  flyway  between breeding and wintering grou nds , undertaken by many species of  birds . Migration, which carries high costs in predation and mortality, including from hunting by humans, is driven primarily by availability of food. Migration occurs mainly in the Northern Hemisphere where birds are funnelled on to specific routes by natural barriers such as the  Mediterranean Sea  or the  Caribbean Sea .



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