organisational development and intervention

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ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS:

ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS

Meaning of Interventions:

Meaning of Interventions “ The planned activities client & consultants participate during the course of an organization development program” Attempt to improve the “ fit ” between the individual & organization between the organization & its environment. Emphasis more on collaboration, confrontation & participation

Types of Interventions:

Types of Interventions Sensitivity training Purpose is to sensitize people to the perceptions & behavior related aspects of themselves & others. Feedback helps the member to know about themselves. Improves listening skills, add openness, helps to accept individual differences Used to reduce interpersonal conflict Enhances group cohesiveness & improves organizational productivity & efficiency Facilitator plays important role by moderating the discussion & by providing constructive feedback. Broader scope , lacks specific goal

Types of Interventions:

Types of Interventions Survey Feedback Systematic data collection from all levels of the organization. Sharing of the information Interpretation/analysis of data Transfers the ownership of the data from change agent to participants Participants plays key role in developing solutions to the problem.

Types of Interventions:

Types of Interventions Process consultation interventions Emphasizes more on resolving interpersonal problems. Increases the participation in problem solving. Specific goal of improving a particular process. Emphasizes on organizational process Coaching & counseling by consultants Determines processes that needs improvement

Types of Interventions:

Types of Interventions Team interventions Used to improve the performance of work teams. Problem diagnosis Task accomplishment Maintaining team relationships improving team & organizational processes Forms of team building interventions Analyze the reason for the existence of team, objectives of the team & how the team prepares the action plan for the accomplishment. General critic of the team Team leader & members decide about the need for the diagnostic meetings. Information is collected through whole groups, or subgroups or pairs of individual. Half a day duration Meeting. Based on the need formal meeting is conducted Action plan is prepared Guidance towards the achievement of the goal.

Types of Interventions:

Types of Interventions The formal group team building meeting Aims at improving relationship between team members & their effectiveness. Meeting is initiated by manager or team members under the supervision of external consultant. Issues are prioritized Responsibilities are assigned to each member Action plan is prepared. Meeting is conducted away from the work place.

Types of Interventions:

Gestalt approach to team building Focuses on individuals based on psychotherapy. Self awareness is essential Accepting as a whole as it is (+ ve, -ve) Awareness know-how Authenticity Accepting responsibility Negative feeling can be resolved through confrontation & repression Practiced by trained practitioner Types of Interventions

Other exercises used for team building:

Other exercises used for team building Role analysis Technique (RAT) John Thomas The role defined is known as focal role Defining the role by team members Expectations, suggestions by team members Preparation of role profile explaing the authority, obligation of the role Role clarity is achieved Role negotiation technique ( RNT)- Roger Harrison Resolving conflict by making some compromises RNT consultants act as a negotiator between the conflicting parties

Other exercises used for team building:

Other exercises used for team building Steps during RNT Contract setting Ground rules submitted in written format Issue diagnosis what kind of change is expected Hoe change will affect on performance. Negotiation period ( 2 days) Discussion of most important changes required from each other Expectations from each others Content of the agreement in written format Follow up meeting

Other exercises used for team building:

Other exercises used for team building Forced field analysis- Kurt Lewin Used for understanding problematic situation & for planning corrective action. Two types of forces- Driving forces forces for change Restraining forces forces resisting change Equilibrium can be obtained to get desired outcome of the change program Essential steps- Defining current problem situation Desired condition Identifying driving, resisting forces Strong & weak forces are identified Strategy to move from current condition to desired condition Implementation of action plan

Other exercises used for team building:

Other exercises used for team building Intergroup team building interventions Improves intergroup relations between work teams Easy flow of communication Steps- OD practitioner meets the leaders of the groupfor understanding the requirement. A & B two groups meet separately & are asked to write about the attitudes & perceptions towards each other, problem related to group etc Group also tries t o anticipate what the other group would write Exchange of written information Understands the communication gap Helps in soarting out many issues Unresolved problems are again discussed Helps to improve interactions

Third party peace making Interventions:

Third party peace making Interventions Method for solving interpersonal conflict Confrontation technique Motivating parties to resolve conflict Insist on exploring possible solutions Sufficient time is given to understand each other Efforts to overcome negative feeling- Differentiation phase- Concentrate on differences in opinion Integration phase- Shares positve feeling & common things

Structural Interventions:

Structural Interventions Also known as Technostructural Interventions. Bring about the changes in the task , structure & technological processes.

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