Oracle 10g SQL Fundamentals II--Les06

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Retrieving Data Using Subqueries : 

Retrieving Data Using Subqueries

Objectives : 

Objectives After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Write a multiple-column subquery Use scalar subqueries in SQL Solve problems with correlated subqueries Update and delete rows using correlated subqueries Use the EXISTS and NOT EXISTS operators Use the WITH clause

Multiple-Column Subqueries : 

Multiple-Column Subqueries Main query WHERE (MANAGER_ID, DEPARTMENT_ID) IN Subquery 100 90102 60124 50 Each row of the main query is compared to values from a multiple-row and multiple-column subquery.

Column Comparisons : 

Column Comparisons Column comparisons in a multiple-column subquery can be: Pairwise comparisons Nonpairwise comparisons

Pairwise Comparison Subquery : 

Pairwise Comparison Subquery Display the details of the employees who are managed by the same manager and work in the same department as the employees with EMPLOYEE_ID 199 or 174. SELECT employee_id, manager_id, department_id FROM employees WHERE (manager_id, department_id) IN (SELECT manager_id, department_id FROM employees WHERE employee_id IN (199,174)) AND employee_id NOT IN (199,174);

Nonpairwise Comparison Subquery : 

Nonpairwise Comparison Subquery Display the details of the employees who are managed by the same manager as the employees with EMPLOYEE_ID 174 or 199 and work in the same department as the employees with EMPLOYEE_ID 174 or 199. SELECT employee_id, manager_id, department_id FROM employees WHERE manager_id IN (SELECT manager_id FROM employees WHERE employee_id IN (174,199)) AND department_id IN (SELECT department_id FROM employees WHERE employee_id IN (174,199)) AND employee_id NOT IN(174,199);

Scalar Subquery Expressions : 

Scalar Subquery Expressions A scalar subquery expression is a subquery thatreturns exactly one column value from one row. Scalar subqueries can be used in: Condition and expression part of DECODE and CASE All clauses of SELECT except GROUP BY

Scalar Subqueries: Examples : 

Scalar Subqueries: Examples Scalar subqueries in CASE expressions SELECT employee_id, last_name, (CASE WHEN department_id = (SELECT department_id FROM departments WHERE location_id = 1800) THEN 'Canada' ELSE 'USA' END) location FROM employees; SELECT employee_id, last_name FROM employees e ORDER BY (SELECT department_name FROM departments d WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id); Scalar subqueries in ORDER BY clause

Notes Only : 

Notes Only

Correlated Subqueries : 

Correlated Subqueries Correlated subqueries are used for row-by-row processing. Each subquery is executed once for every row of the outer query. GET candidate row from outer query EXECUTE inner query using candidate row value USE values from inner query to qualify or disqualify candidate row

Correlated Subqueries : 

Correlated Subqueries The subquery references a column from a table in the parent query. SELECT column1, column2, ... FROM table1 WHERE column1 operator (SELECT column1, column2 FROM table2 WHERE expr1 = .expr2); outer outer

Using Correlated Subqueries : 

SELECT last_name, salary, department_id FROM employees outer WHERE salary > (SELECT AVG(salary) FROM employees WHERE department_id = outer.department_id); Using Correlated Subqueries Find all employees who earn more than the average salary in their department. Each time a row from the outer query is processed, the inner query is evaluated.

Using Correlated Subqueries : 

Using Correlated Subqueries Display details of those employees who have changedjobs at least twice. SELECT e.employee_id, last_name,e.job_id FROM employees e WHERE 2 <= (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM job_history WHERE employee_id = e.employee_id);

Using the EXISTS Operator : 

Using the EXISTS Operator The EXISTS operator tests for existence of rows in the results set of the subquery. If a subquery row value is found: The search does not continue in the inner query The condition is flagged TRUE If a subquery row value is not found: The condition is flagged FALSE The search continues in the inner query

Find Employees Who Have at Least One Person Reporting to Them : 

SELECT employee_id, last_name, job_id, department_id FROM employees outer WHERE EXISTS ( SELECT 'X' FROM employees WHERE manager_id = outer.employee_id); Find Employees Who Have at Least One Person Reporting to Them

Find All Departments That Do Not Have Any Employees : 

SELECT department_id, department_name FROM departments d WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 'X' FROM employees WHERE department_id = d.department_id); Find All Departments That Do Not Have Any Employees …

Correlated UPDATE : 

Correlated UPDATE Use a correlated subquery to update rows in one table based on rows from another table. UPDATE table1 alias1 SET column = (SELECT expression FROM table2 alias2 WHERE alias1.column = alias2.column);

Using Correlated UPDATE : 

Using Correlated UPDATE Denormalize the EMPL6 table by adding a column to store the department name. Populate the table by using a correlated update. ALTER TABLE empl6 ADD(department_name VARCHAR2(25)); UPDATE empl6 e SET department_name = (SELECT department_name FROM departments d WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id);

Notes Only : 

Notes Only

Correlated DELETE : 

DELETE FROM table1 alias1 WHERE column operator (SELECT expression FROM table2 alias2 WHERE alias1.column = alias2.column); Correlated DELETE Use a correlated subquery to delete rows in one table based on rows from another table.

Using Correlated DELETE : 

DELETE FROM empl6 E WHERE employee_id = (SELECT employee_id FROM emp_history WHERE employee_id = E.employee_id); Using Correlated DELETE Use a correlated subquery to delete only those rows from the EMPL6 table that also exist in the EMP_HISTORY table.

The WITH Clause : 

The WITH Clause Using the WITH clause, you can use the same query block in a SELECT statement when it occurs more than once within a complex query. The WITH clause retrieves the results of a query block and stores it in the user’s temporary tablespace. The WITH clause improves performance.

WITH Clause: Example : 

WITH Clause: Example Using the WITH clause, write a query to display the department name and total salaries for those departments whose total salary is greater than the average salary across departments.

WITH Clause: Example : 

WITH Clause: Example WITH dept_costs AS ( SELECT d.department_name, SUM(e.salary) AS dept_total FROM employees e JOIN departments d ON e.department_id = d.department_id GROUP BY d.department_name), avg_cost AS ( SELECT SUM(dept_total)/COUNT(*) AS dept_avg FROM dept_costs) SELECT * FROM dept_costs WHERE dept_total > (SELECT dept_avg FROM avg_cost) ORDER BY department_name;

Summary : 

Summary In this lesson, you should have learned the following: A multiple-column subquery returns more than one column. Multiple-column comparisons can be pairwise or nonpairwise. A multiple-column subquery can also be used in the FROM clause of a SELECT statement.

Summary : 

Summary Correlated subqueries are useful whenever a subquery must return a different result for each candidate row. The EXISTS operator is a Boolean operator that tests the presence of a value. Correlated subqueries can be used with SELECT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements. You can use the WITH clause to use the same query block in a SELECT statement when it occurs more than once.

Practice 6: Overview : 

Practice 6: Overview This practice covers the following topics: Creating multiple-column subqueries Writing correlated subqueries Using the EXISTS operator Using scalar subqueries Using the WITH clause

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