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Managing Diverse Employees In a Multicultural Environment : 

Managing Diverse Employees In a Multicultural Environment McGraw-Hill/Irwin Contemporary Management, 5/e Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter five

Learning Objectives : 

5-3 Learning Objectives Discuss the increasing diversity of the workforce and of the organizational environment. Explain the central role that managers play in the effective management of diversity. Explain why the effective management of diversity is both an ethical and a business imperative. Discuss how perception and the use of schemas can result in unfair treatment.

Learning Objectives : 

5-4 Learning Objectives List the steps managers can take to effectively manage diversity Identify the two major forms of sexual harassment and how they can be eliminated.

1. The Increasing Diversity of the Workforce and the Environment : 

5-5 1. The Increasing Diversity of the Workforce and the Environment Diversity Dissimilarities/differences among people in age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and capabilities/disabilities

1. Sources of Diversity in the Workplace : 

5-6 1. Sources of Diversity in the Workplace Figure 5.1

1. Diversity Concerns : 

5-7 1. Diversity Concerns The ethical imperative for equal opportunity Effectively managing diversity can improve organizational effectiveness There is substantial evidence that diverse individuals continue to experience unfair treatment

1. Diversity Concerns : 

5-8 1. Diversity Concerns Glass Ceiling alludes 間接提到 to the invisible barriers that prevents minorities and women from being promoted to top corporate positions

1.1 Workforce Diversity: Age : 

5-9 1.1 Workforce Diversity: Age Aging U.S. Population Median age in the United States is 36.2 years, by 2030 20 per cent of the population will be over 65 Federal Age Discrimination Laws 1964 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 1967 Age Discrimination in Employment Act

1.1 Major EEO Laws : 

5-10 1.1 Major EEO Laws Insert Table 5.1

1.2 Workforce Diversity: Gender : 

5-11 1.2 Workforce Diversity: Gender Women in the Work Place U.S. workforce is 46% percent female Women’s median weekly earnings are $572 compared to $714 for men Women hold only 16% of corporate officer positions

1.3 Race and Ethnicity : 

5-12 1.3 Race and Ethnicity Census Bureau distinguishes between the following races American Indian, Asian, African-American, Native Hawaiian and White The racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population is increasing at an exponential rate

1.3 Race and Ethnicity : 

5-13 1.3 Race and Ethnicity Ethnicity refers to whether a person is Hispanic or not Hispanic Most Hispanics 西班牙人 prefer to be identified by their country of origin

1.4 Workforce Diversity: Capabilities and Disabilities : 

5-14 1.4 Workforce Diversity: Capabilities and Disabilities Disability Issues Providing reasonable accommodations for individuals with disabilities Promoting a nondiscriminatory workplace environment Educating the organization about disabilities and AIDS

1.5 Workforce Diversity: Religion : 

5-15 1.5 Workforce Diversity: Religion Accommodation for Religious Beliefs Scheduling of critical meetings Providing flexible time off for holy days Posting holy days for different religions on the company calendar

1.6 Question? : 

5-16 1.6 Question? What refers to a combination of social class and income-related factors? Sociological background Socioeconomic background Economic diversity Social class

1.6 Workforce Diversity: Socioeconomic Background : 

5-17 1.6 Workforce Diversity: Socioeconomic Background Socioeconomic background – refers to a combination of social class and income-related factors

1.6 Workforce Diversity: Socioeconomic Background : 

5-18 1.6 Workforce Diversity: Socioeconomic Background Socioeconomic diversity requires that managers be sensitive and responsive to the needs and concerns of individuals who might not be as well off as others

+++1.6 Workforce Diversity: Socioeconomic Background : 

5-19 +++1.6 Workforce Diversity: Socioeconomic Background Suggests that managers need to be sensitive and responsible to the needs and concerns of such workers Whenever possible, provide them with opportunities to learn, advance, and make meaningful contributions to the organization while improving their economic well-being

+++1.7 Workforce Diversity: Sexual Orientation : 

5-20 +++1.7 Workforce Diversity: Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation Issues Employment and workplace discrimination Provision of same-sex partner benefits Over 40% of gay/lesbian employees indicated that they had been unfairly treated Fear disclosing their sexual orientation in the workplace and thus live lives of secrecy

2. Critical Managerial Roles : 

5-21 2. Critical Managerial Roles Managers have more influence than rank-and-file 一般大眾的 employees When managers commit to diversity, it legitimizes diversity efforts of others

2. Critical Managerial Roles : 

5-22 2. Critical Managerial Roles Top-management commitment and rewards for the support of diversity are critical ingredients for the success of diversity management initiatives

2.1 Critical Managerial Roles : 

5-23 2.1 Critical Managerial Roles Effective management of diversity hinges on two factors Minorities start out at a slight disadvantage due to the ways in which they are perceived by others in the organization Research suggests slight differences in treatment can cumulate and result in major disparities 不一致 over time

2.1 Critical Managerial Roles : 

5-24 2.1 Critical Managerial Roles Insert Table 5.2

2.2 The Ethical Imperative 誡命 to Manage Diversity Effectively : 

5-25 2.2 The Ethical Imperative 誡命 to Manage Diversity Effectively 2.2.1 Distributive Justice A moral principle calling for the distribution of pay raises, promotions, job titles, interesting job assignments, office space, and other organizational resources to be based on meaningful contribution that individuals have made and not personal characteristics over which they have no control.

Weekly Salaries by Sex and Occupation : 

5-26 Weekly Salaries by Sex and Occupation Insert table 5.3

The Ethical Imperative to Manage Diversity Effectively : 

5-27 The Ethical Imperative to Manage Diversity Effectively 2.2.2 Procedural Justice A moral principle calling for the use of fair procedures to determine how to distribute outcomes to organizational members.

2.2.2 Procedural Justice : 

5-28 2.2.2 Procedural Justice Exists when managers: 1) carefully appraise a subordinate’s performance 2) take into account any environmental obstacles to high performance3) ignore irrelevant personal characteristics Procedural justice is necessary to ensure ethical conduct and avoid costly lawsuits.

2.3 Managing Diversity Effectively Makes Good Business Sense : 

5-29 2.3 Managing Diversity Effectively Makes Good Business Sense What a Diversity of Employees Provides A variety of points of view and approaches to problems and opportunities can improve managerial decision making. Diverse employees can provide a wider range of creative ideas. Diverse employees are more attuned to (to adjust to) the needs of diverse customers. Diversity can increase the retention of valued organizational members. Diversity is expected/required by other firms

3. Question? : 

5-30 3. Question? What is the process through which people interpret what they see, hear, and touch? Perception 感覺 Imperception Intuition 直覺 Selective listening

3. Perception : 

5-31 3. Perception Perception The process through which people select, organize, and interpret what they see, hear, touch, smell, and taste to give meaning and order to the world around them.

3. Perception : 

5-32 3. Perception When perceptions are inaccurate, managers are likely to make bad decisions and take inappropriate actions

3. Perception : 

5-33 3. Perception Bad decisions include: 1) not hiring qualified people 2) failing to promote top-performing subordinates 3) promoting poorly performing managers because they have the same “diversity profile”

3.1 Perception : 

5-34 3.1 Perception Factors that Influence Managerial Perception Schema 輪廓 An abstract knowledge structure stored in memory that allows people to organize and interpret information about a person, event, or situation Schemas tend to be reinforced over time and are often resistant to change Gender Schema Preconceived beliefs or ideas about the nature of men and women, their traits, attitudes, behaviors, and preferences

3.2 Perception : 

5-35 3.2 Perception Perception as a Determinant 判定of Unfair Treatment 3.2.1 Stereotype 舊框框, 固定的形象 Simplistic and often inaccurate beliefs about the typical characteristics of particular groups of people Stereotypes are lead people to make erroneous assumes. 3.2.2 Bias The systematic tendency to use information about others in ways that result in inaccurate perceptions

3.2.2 Bias : 

5-36 3.2.2 Bias 3.2.2.1 Similar-to-me effect – perceive others who are similar to ourselves more positively than we perceive people who are different 3.2.2.2 Social status effect – perceive individuals with high social status more positively than those with low social status 3.2.2.3 Salience 突出 effect – focus attention on individuals who are conspicuously 顯著地 different

3.2.3 Perception : 

5-37 3.2.3 Perception Overt 明顯的 Discrimination Knowingly and willingly denying diverse individuals access to opportunities and outcomes in an organization Unethical and illegal Violation of the principles of distributive and procedural justice Subjects firm to lawsuits

4. How to Manage Diversity : 

5-38 4. How to Manage Diversity Steps in Managing Diversity Effectively Secure top management commitment Strive to increase the accuracy of perceptions Increase diversity awareness Increase diversity skills Encourage flexibility – learn how to be open to different approaches Pay close attention to how organizational members are evaluated Consider the numbers – if members of certain groups are very underrepresented in particular kinds of jobs or units, managers need to understand why this is the case and resolve any problems they might uncover

4. Discussion Question? : 

5-39 4. Discussion Question? What is the most important step in managing diversity? Secure top management commitment Increase diversity awareness Encourage flexibility Pay close attention to how organizational members are evaluated

4. How to Manage Diversity : 

5-40 4. How to Manage Diversity Steps in Managing Diversity Effectively Empower employees to challenge discriminatory behaviors, actions, and remarks Reward employees for effectively managing diversity Provide training utilizing a multi-pronged, ongoing approach Encourage mentoring of diverse employees

4. Diversity Awareness Programs : 

5-41 4. Diversity Awareness Programs Provide members with accurate information about diversity Uncover personal biases and stereotypes Assess personal beliefs, attitudes, and values and learning about other points of view Develop an atmosphere in which people feel free to share their differing perspectives Improve understanding of others who are different

4. How to Manage Diversity : 

5-42 4. How to Manage Diversity Mentoring - A process by which an experienced member of an organization provides advice and guidance to an less experienced member and helps them learn how to advance in the organization and in their career.

5. Sexual Harassment : 

5-43 5. Sexual Harassment 5.1 Forms of Sexual Harassment 5.1.1 Quid pro quo 一物換一物 Asking of forcing an employee to perform sexual favors in exchange for some reward or to avoid negative consequences.

Sexual Harassment : 

5-44 Sexual Harassment Forms of Sexual Harassment 5.1.2 Hostile work environment Occurs when organizational members are faced with an intimidating 恐嚇, hostile, or offensive work environment because of their sex Interferes with their ability to perform their jobs effectively

5.2 Steps to Eradicate 撲滅 Sexual Harassment : 

5-45 5.2 Steps to Eradicate 撲滅 Sexual Harassment Develop and clearly communicate a sexual harassment policy endorsed by top management Use a fair complaint procedure to investigate charges of sexual harassment

5.2 Steps to Eradicate Sexual Harassment : 

5-46 5.2 Steps to Eradicate Sexual Harassment When it has been determined that sexual harassment has taken place, take corrective action as soon as possible Provide sexual harassment education and training to all organizational members, including managers

Factors to Keep in Mind About Sexual Harassment : 

5-47 Factors to Keep in Mind About Sexual Harassment Every sexual harassment charge should be taken seriously Employees who go along with unwanted sexual attention in the workplace can be victims Employees sometimes wait before they file complaints

Factors to Keep in Mind About Sexual Harassment : 

5-48 Factors to Keep in Mind About Sexual Harassment A firm’s sexual harassment policy should be communicated to each new employee and reviewed with current employees on a periodic basis Suppliers and customers need to be familiar with a firm’s sexual harassment policy

Factors to Keep in Mind About Sexual Harassment : 

5-49 Factors to Keep in Mind About Sexual Harassment Managers should provide employees with alternative ways to report incidents of sexual harassment Employees who report sexual harassment must have their rights protected Allegations 指控 of sexual harassment should be kept confidential

Factors to Keep in Mind About Sexual Harassment : 

5-50 Factors to Keep in Mind About Sexual Harassment Investigations of harassment charges and any disciplinary action should proceed in a timely manner Managers must protect employees from sexual harassment from any third-party employees

Movie Example: X-Men : 

5-51 Movie Example: X-Men As a manager, what are the consequences for excluding any group on the basis of preconceived stereotypes?

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