The_Lexical_Approach

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The Lexical Approach : 

The Lexical Approach Enver Yakabov Steve Neufeld

Background Knowledge : 

Background Knowledge The Lexical Approach (LA) was published by Michael Lewis in…1953? 1973? 1993? 1993. It offers a completely new approach of teaching and learning… vocabulary and grammar.

Standard View : 

Standard View Language = ? Vocabulary + Grammar

The Lexical Approach : 

The Lexical Approach Language consists of… CHUNKS LA highlights the combinations which are not only possible but… highly likely.

The Lexical Approach : 

The Lexical Approach 4 basic chunks: W… Words Fixed… Fixed Expressions Semi-fixed… Semi-fixed Expressions Co… Collocations

Words : 

Words The category which is the… largest Words stand… ALONE Listed and use defined in… dictionaries

Words : 

Words Example: I go to school by… car / train / bus / etc Could you pass the ……., please? salt / pepper / water

Words : 

Words It is important to distinguish between items that are SINGLE WORD or MULTI WORD

Multi Words : 

Multi Words Examples: On the other arm / hand / leg On the other hand By the road / way / route By the way To and back / fro / down To and fro

Fixed Expressions : 

Fixed Expressions Social greetings Good morning! It’s a lovely morning, isn’t it? Happy New Year! Politeness phrases No, thank you, I am fine. I will have to be going. Idioms It cost me an arm and a leg. It’s raining cats ans dogs.)

Which is it? : 

Which is it? Happy New Year / Merry New Year Happy Christmas / Merry Christmas http://googlebattle.com

Semi-fixed Expressions : 

Semi-fixed Expressions Minimal variation It’s / That’s not my fault) Simple Slot Could you pass ……., please?) Sentence Heads What was really interesting / surpising / annoying was … .)

Semi-fixed Expressions : 

Semi-fixed Expressions Example: Academic paper There are broadly speaking two views of … The more traditional , usually associated with … and his / her collegues, suggests that …, while the more progressive view, associated with … suggests … . In this paper I wish to suggest a third position which suggests … .

Slide 17: 

Collocations

Collocations : 

Collocations Task 1: His books alerted criticism from many people. His books attracted criticism from many people. There was a high difference between the two teams. There was a great difference between the two teams. He had been found guilty of some slight crimes. He had been found guilty of some petty crimes.

Collocations : 

Collocations There are some combinations of words which co-occur naturally with greater than random frequency.

Collocations : 

Collocations Thus, learning collocations is a matter of OBSERVATION and PRACTICE

Collocations : 

Collocations Adverse Blunt Constant + CRITICISM Helpful Severe

Collocations : 

Collocations Attract Be subject to Deserve + (ADJ) CRITICISM React to Provoke

Collocations : 

Collocations De-lexicalised words: Make… a suggestionan anouncementa call Have… a breaka mealtrouble Take… measures to..your timeprecautions against..

Collocations : 

Collocations Lingusitic not thematic Ex: Would you like a coffee? No thanks, I’ve had one. No thanks, I’ve drunk one.

Collocations : 

Collocations Where do people catch these? Bus … stop Taxi … rank Train … station

Collocations : 

Collocations Arbitrary Tall building / high building Tall boy / high boy* Look at a person / problem Gaze at a person / problem

Collocations : 

Collocations Student: Why, teacher? Teacher: Because!!!

Collocations : 

Collocations Pedagogic value of recording, noticing and learning words together with partner words. Pedagogic value of recording, noticing and learning words together with partner words.

Collocations : 

Collocations Metaphors: Physics: Newton’s Law of universal gravitation Marriage contract fish and … of paramount ….. Have a …. day.

Collocations : 

Collocations Frequency “black and white”, “web site”, “surf the Internet” Strength “square meal”, “paramount importance”, “quantitative analysis”

Collocations : 

Words are not used ALONE It is more efficient to learn THE WHOLE and break it into parts than vice versa Improves FLUENCY and NATIVELIKENESS Collocations Words are not used ALONE It is more efficient to learn THE WHOLE and break it into parts than vice versa Improves FLUENCY and NATIVELIKENESS

Key principles : 

Language consists of grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar. The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is invalid; much language consists of multi-words 'chunks'. A central element of language teaching is raising students' awareness of, and developing their ability to 'chunk' language successfully. Language consists of grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar. The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is invalid; much language consists of multi-words 'chunks'. A central element of language teaching is raising students' awareness of, and developing their ability to 'chunk' language successfully. Key principles

Key principles : 

Structural patterns are acknowledged as useful, but lexical and metaphorical patterning have equal status. Collocation is integrated as an organising principle within syllabuses. The central metaphor of language is holistic - an organism; not atomistic - a machine. Key principles Structural patterns are acknowledged as useful, but lexical and metaphorical patterning have equal status. Collocation is integrated as an organising principle within syllabuses. The central metaphor of language is holistic - an organism; not atomistic - a machine.

Key principles : 

It is the co-textual rather than the situational element of context which are of primary importance for language teaching. Grammar as a receptive skill, involving the perception of similarity and difference, is prioritised. Receptive skills (listening and reading), are given enhanced status. The Present-Practise-Produce paradigm is rejected, rather based on the Observe-Hypothesise-Experiment cycle. Key principles It is the co-textual rather than the situational element of context which are of primary importance for language teaching. Grammar as a receptive skill, involving the perception of similarity and difference, is prioritised. Receptive skills (listening and reading), are given enhanced status. The Present-Practise-Produce paradigm is rejected, rather based on the Observe-Hypothesise-Experiment cycle.

The context paradox : 

The context paradox Need to know the context before you can learn from it

The context paradox… : 

The context paradox… John xbt bssftgge gps ijuujoh ijt xjgf xjui o hod.

The context paradox… : 

The context paradox… John was bssftgge for ijuujoh his xjgf with a hod.

The context paradox… : 

The context paradox… John was bssftgge for ijuujoh his wife with a hod.

The context paradox… : 

The context paradox… John was arrested for ijuujoh his wife with a hod.

The context paradox… : 

The context paradox… John was arrested for hitting his wife with a hod.

The context paradox… : 

The context paradox… John was executed for ijuxujoh his wife with a knife.

The context paradox… : 

The context paradox… John was executed for stabbing hiswife with a knife.

Slide 46: 

WORD FORMS:poem poet poetry poetic

KWIC concordance : 

KWIC concordance

Slide 48: 

Learning to study concordancesStudy the following concordance string from lextutor.What does it tell you about the word ‘lobster’?o it yourself" shish kebab or a LOBSTER roast. Then you'll want terry ers may be significant. Adult  LOBSTERs have no difficulty crushing  ow low water mark, predation by LOBSTERs may be significant. Adult loent to us was a beautiful large LOBSTER he and one of the boys had brhe Mate, who had eaten too much LOBSTER too fast. And the Captain, af wished he hadn't eaten so much LOBSTER for lunch. But they all tightiner ships and brightly painted LOBSTER boats than the port of Miami.hen they went to pull up their  LOBSTER pots. Rev. Dr. Leslie D. Weat for that! Waiter! Waiter! This LOBSTER has only one claw! Oh, it mus

Slide 49: 

On the Quality Trail - May 2008 49 | glance | look | notice | see | [001]er the picture. It said: Come in and _____ the Elephant Man. 2 pence. I [003]sorry,' I said. 'But I would like to _____ him now. I have no time tomor[007] 'Let him sit down. I don't want to _____ any more.' I felt ill, and th[009] you know. Lots of people want to _____ him.' 'Yes, I [010] him.' 'Yes, I _____ . Do you get a lot of money?' ' [001]about twelve years old, but a second _____ showed her to be in her middl[002]ands National Park, it takes only a _____ over the guardrail to get it.[003] notice us! We couldn't get him to _____ in our direction, no matter w[005propriate moments. With an occasional _____ at his wristwatch Mike got u [001]ing nearer to him. Arthur seemed to _____ that Catherine was interested [002]ole next day, very pleased. Did you _____ her dress? So inexpensive!' 6 [003]d we all, even Miss Pole, failed to _____ ! I remember the morning she ca[008] the bag out of his hand. He took no _____ , but continued down the long, [001] man in the picture, but he did not _____ like you and me. He did not [003] or me. The creature did not move or _____ at us. It sat very quietly on[004]The face could not smile or laugh or _____ angry or sad, because the ski[009]u mean?' I asked. 'Why?' He did not _____ at me. He put the flower on th

Vocabulary explosion in L2? : 

Vocabulary explosion in L2?

Vocabulary explosion in L2? : 

Vocabulary explosion in L2? BNL2709 pilot projects Oxford Bookworms level test Yes/No vocabulary test (2K, 5K and 10K)

Fast mapping : 

Fast mapping one mechanism underpinning the vocabulary explosion

Fast mapping : 

Fast mapping

Fast mapping in L2? : 

Fast mapping in L2? breaking out of preparatory school purgatory

ANY QUESTIONS ??? : 

ANY QUESTIONS ???

From THEORY to PRACTİCE : 

From THEORY to PRACTİCE