Drug Testing (The War on Drugs) By SRINATH KADHAM

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. DRUG TESTING (The war on drugs) Drugs are injurious to health CESCOP PRODUCTION Under the guidance of Mr. R. NAGESWARA RAO M.Pharm ., Assistant Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance CREATIVE EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY’S COLLEGE OF PHARMACY . CHINNATEKUR, KURNOOL – 518218 (A.P), INDIA. BY K.SRINATH 15Y01S0407

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INTRODUCTION A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, or oral fluid/saliva—to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites. Major applications of drug testing include : Detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport Employers screening for drugs prohibited by law (such as cannabis, cocaine and heroin) Police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC (blood alcohol content).

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Marijuana Cocaine Opiates Amphetamines Phencyclidine Drugs To Be Tested NO SNACKS ONLY DRUGS

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BLOOD HAIR URINE SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Odor of alcohol Odor of marijuana Slurred speech Flushed swollen face Red eyes Pupils dilated or constricted or unusual eye movements Sleepiness Nausea Reduced concentration/focusing SYMPTOMS & BEHAVIOURS Change In Attendance Change In Work Quality Increase In Accidents Carelessness Labile (Changing) Mood Uneven Judgment Inability To Locate For Periods Of Time Increase In Visits To Restroom, Car, Etc. Any other suspicious behavior

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K. SRINATH TV 9 CHINNATEKUR KURNOOL KURNOOL Reporting from CES COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 60 % of Forensics Lab work is drugs 85-90% of all Criminal Cases involve drugs 40% of the working population have used illegal drugs. 25% of those seeking help with drug problems are employed 1 in 25 of people are alcohol dependent 80% of Americans think adults should be able to use marijuana legally for medical purposes. 47% of Americans admit having tried marijuana at least once. 72% of Americans say people arrested for possessing small amounts of marijuana should be fined, not jailed.

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Drug Testing – 3 Steps Specimen Collection Specimen Testing and Confirmation Medical Review of Results (MRO) CESCOP PRODUCTION DRUG TESTING INTERVAL

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THE WAR ON DRUGS Test for: - Illicit drugs (urine) - Alcohol (breath, saliva) - Other specimens (oral, fluids, hair)

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RIA EIA TLC GLC

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RIA KNOWN AMOUNTS OF RADIOACTIVE LABELLED DRUG ARE ADDED TO A SAMPLE WITH KNOWN ANTIBODY AMOUNTS. THE LABELLED AND UNLABELLED DRUGS COMPETE FOR THE ANTIBODY SITES THE ANTIBODY – ANTIGEN COMPLEXES ARE CENTRIFUGED AND MEASURED IN A GAMMA COUNTER

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EMIT(ENZYME MULTIPLIED IMMUNOASSAY TECHNIQUE) SYSTEM IS FREQUENTLY USED. THE LABEL ON THE ANTIGEN IS AN ENZYME THAT PRODUCES A CHEMICAL REACTION WHEN INTERACTING WITH ANOTHER SUBSTANCE. ENZYME ACTIVITY IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE CONCENTRATION OF DRUG (ANTIGEN) PRESENT. EIA

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BASED ON AN INERT GAS AS THE MOVING PHASE TO TRANSPORT A VAPORIZED SAMPLE OF DRUG THROUGH A COLUMN CONTAINING A STATIONARY LIQUID PHASE. GAS LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

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A MIXTURE OF KNOWN DRUG COMPOUNDS (STANDARD) ARE APPLIED TO SPECIFIC AREAS AND ARE ALLOWED TO MOVE ACROSS THE PLATE BY CAPILLARY ACTION. THE UNKNOWNS ARE COMPARED TO KNOWN SAMPLES AS TO THEIR VERY SPECIFIC MOVEMENT.

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BREATH DRUG TESTING ADVANTAGES - SHOWS CURRENT USE CAN BE CORRELATED WITH BLOOD LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORS CAN BE USED TO DETERMINE IF ONE IS SMOKING 15Y01S0407

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NEED TESTING EQUIPMENT COST MAINTENANCE QUALITY CONTROL BREATH DRUG TESTING DISADVANTAGES 15Y01S0407

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-EASY TO ADULTERATE -AMOUNT OF DOSE MAY NOT CORRELATE WITHCONCENTRATION -COLLECTION ISSUES -TESTING MAY NOT CORRELATE WITH LEVELS OF IMPAIRMENT DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES EXTENSIVE SCIENTIFIC BASE AND RESEARCH ACCURATE AND RELIABLE TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN IN PLACE FOR YEARS TOILETS URINE DRUG TESTING

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ADVANTAGES - LONG TIME WINDOW FOR DRUG DETECTION - EASY TO COLLECT, HANDLE AND STORE - SAMPLE IS CUT, GROUND UP THEN WASHED WITH WATER AND/OR SOLVENTS. EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION PROCESS PRECEDES ASSAY - STORAGE IS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE (NO NEED TO REFRIGERATE OR FREEZE PATIENT SAMPLES) - SECOND COLLECTION CAPABILITY DISADVANTAGES - MAY NOT DETECT RECENT USE - ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION IS A POSSIBLE PROBLEM - MECHANISM OF DRUG DEPOSITION IS NOT WELL UNDERSTOOD - DUE TO EITHER DIFFUSION FROM BLOOD TO HAIR FOLLICLE, SWEAT SECRETION, SEBACEOUS GLAND SECRETION OR ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION HAIR DRUG TEST

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ADVANTAGES DETECTION PERIOD IS MINUTES TO DAYS AFTER INGESTION BREATH LEVELS CAN BE CORRELATED WITH BLOOD LEVELS DISADVANTAGES INVASIVE RISK OF NEEDLE STICKS TO HEALTHCARE WORKERS BLOOD DRUG TEST

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CONCLUSION - All drug tests have strengths and limitations - All specimen types have strengths and limitations, and are at risk of tampering - Individual characteristics of a drug user will impact drug testing results

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THE END THANK YOU CESCOPS SPECIAL THANKS TO M r. R.NAGESWARA RAO SIR Miss. BUSHRA MAM Mrs. SULAKSHANA MAM Miss. RAMA DEVI MAM DRUGS KILL THE PAIN AND THE JOY AND THE HOPE AND THE BODY AND THE BRAIN AND FINALLY THE SOUL PLAYING WITH PILLS KILLS DRUGS TAKE YOU TO HELL, DISGUISED AS HEAVEN

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