FILTRATION AND CENTRIFUGATION

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1 SRIKANTH ASST PROF JPNES MAHABUB NAGAR

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2 Filtration; Filteration may be defined asaprocess of separation of solids from a fluid by passing the same through a porous medium that reatains the solids,but allows the fluids to pass through. The suspension to be filtered to be is known as slurry. The porous medium used to retain the solids is kown as filter medium. The accumulated solids on the filter are reffered as filter cake. The clear liquid passing through the filter is filtrate.

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3 Process of Filtration; (Principle) Applications; 1.Production of sterile products. 2.Production of bulk drugs. 3. Production of liquid oral formulations. 4.Affluent and waste water treatment.

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4 Mechanism of Filtration; Particles are retained by a filter is significant only in the initial stages of filtration. 1.Straining; 2.Impingement; 3.Entanglement; 4.Attractive forces; Types of filtration; 1.Surface filtration (screen filtration ) 2.Depth filtration 3.Cake filtration

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5 Difference between surface and depth filtration

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6 Theories of Filtration; Rate=Driving force/Resistance Poiseuille's equation; V=∏ Δpr4/8Lη Darcy's equation; V= KA ΔP/Lη Kozeny-carman equation; V=A/ηS2*ΔP/KL*ε3/(1-ε)2 Limitations of kozeny carman equation;

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7 Factors influencing filtration; a. 1.Properties of the liquids-denisity,viscosity and corrosiveness. 2.Properties of solids-particle shape,size,charge,density,size distribution etc... 3. Proportion of solids in the slurry-rate at which the filter cake is formed. 4. Objectives-whether solid or liquid or both are to be collected. 5.Temperature of the suspensions. b .surface area of the filter medium. c .Pressure drop across the filter medium. 1.Gravity; 2.Applying pressure; 3.Reduced pressure; 4.Centrifugal force; d.Viscosity of filtrate;

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8 Filter media; The filter medium acts as a mechanical support for the filter cake and is also responsible for the collection of solids. Characterstics; 1.It should have sufficient mechanical strength. 2.It must inert. 3.It should not absorb the dissolved materials.

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9 Materials used; 1.Woven materials such as felt or cloth. 2. Perforated sheet metal. 3.Bed of granular solid built up on a supporting steel plates. 4.Prefabricated porous solid unit. 5.Membrane filter media. a.Surface type cartidges. b.Depth type cartridges.

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10 Filter aids; Filter aids forms asurface deposit which screens out the solids and also prevents the plugging of the supporting filter medium. Characterstics; 1.Chemically inert to the liquid being filtered and free from impurities. 2. Low specific gravity,so that filter aids remain suspended in liquid. 3. Porous rather than dense,so that previous cake can be formed. 4.Recoverable. Examples of filter aids are; Keiselguhr,talc,bentonite.charcoal,asbesos,paer pulp etc. Handling filter aids;

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11 Classification of filtration equipment; Equipment are classified based on the application of external force; 1.Pressure filter-Plate and frame filter press and metafilter. 2.Vaccum filter- filter leaf. 3.Centrfugal filter. Classified based on the operation of the filtration; a. Continous filteration-Discharge and filtrate are separated teadily and uninterrupted. b. Discontinous filtration-Discharge of filtered solids is intermitent.filtrate is removed continuously.the operartion shoul stopped to cllect the solids. Classified based on the nature of filtration; a.Cake filter-Remove large amounts of solids. b.Clarifying filters-Feed small amounts of solids. c.Cross flow filter- Feed of suspension flows under pressure at a fairly high velosity across the filter medium.

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12 Plate and Frame filter press; Uses; 1.Capable of retaining bacteria.so that sterile filtrate can be obtained. 2.Heating/cooling coils are incorporated in the press so as to make it suitable for the filtration of viscous liquids. Filter leaf; Uses; The filter leaf is satisfactory.if the solid content of the slurry is not too high,about 5%.dilute suspension. Metafilter;(Edge filter); Uses; 1.Clarification of syrups. 2.Filtration of injections solutions. 3.Clarification of insulin liquors. 4.Filtration of viscous liquids can be achieved by applying pressure.

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13 Cartridge filter; Uses; Usefull for the preparation of particulate free solutions for parentral and opthalmic uses. 1000 to 15000 l/h. Drum filter (Rotary ) Uses; 1.Used for continous operation. 2.Used for ca,co3,starch and mgco3. Optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters; The various types of batch filter are; 1.The washing plate and frame filter press. 2.The leaf filter. 3.The edge filter.

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14 Centrifugation; Is a unit operation emplyoed for separting the constituents present in a dispersion with the aid of centrifugal forces. Process of centri fugation; Applications (Role of centrifugation) 1.Production of bulk drugs. 2.Production of biological products. 3.Biopharmaceutical analysis of drugs. 4.Evaluation of suspensions an demulsions. 5.Determination of molecular weiht of colloids.

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15 Theory of Centrifugation; Centrifugal effects or relative centrifugal force (RCF) Classification of Centrifuges; Based on mechanism of seperation; 1.Sedimentation centrfuge. 2.Ultracentrfugation.

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16 Uses; 1.Suspension containing low concentration of solid can be separated quickly. 2.Olive and fish liver oils are pu rified by removing dirt and water. 3.Bacterial enzymes are prepared are by removing bacteria. 4.Blood plasm is separeted from whole blood. 5. Starch is collected after washing and purification stages. Filtration centrifuge; Uses; 1.solid recovery is the primary goal,centrifugation must be considered as an alternative to simple filtration. 2.for removing unwanted solids from aliquid.

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17 Classification based on scale of usage; Laboratory;Horizontal spinnig arm type. Scale; Anlgle centrifuge,High speed centrifuge,Ultrcentrifuge. Commercial scale; Batch type; Perforated basket centrfuge Semi Continous scale; Short cycle centrfuge Continous centrfuges; Supercentrfuge Conical disk centrfuge or Delaval clarifier;

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18 Crystallization Crystallization is spontaneous arrangement of the particles in to a repetitive orderly array,i.e.,regular reometric patterns. A process of forming crystals from a homogeneous liquid or gaseous phase.this techniques involves the separation of solid-liquid phase. Example; Freezing of water. Removal of potassium chloride crystals fromaqueous solution.

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19 Applications; 1.Purification of drugs. 2.Better processing characterstics. 3.Ease of handling. 4.Better chemical stability. 5.Improved physical stability. 6.Improved bioavailabilty. 7.Sustained release. 8.Miscellaneous.

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20 Theory of Crystallization; Mechanism of Crystallization; The formation of crystals from solution involves 3 steps. 1.Supersaturation. 2.Nucleus formation. 3.Crystal growth (Mier's supersaturation theory)

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21 Solubility curves; Solubilty curves are usefull in predicting the experimental conditions desired for crytallizing substance. Yield of crystallization; 1.Material balance. 2.Energy balance. Equipments; Agitated batch crystallizer. Swenson walker crystallizer. Krystal crystallizer. Vaccum crystallizer. Caking of crystals.

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22 Factors affecting caking; 1. Size of the crystals. 2.Shape of the crystals. 3.Humidity. 4.Time of exposure. 4.Impurities in crytals. 5.Melting point of crystals. 6.Temperature fluctuations. Preventing of caking;

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