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Encrypting messages using pictures, audio files, network traffic and other means


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Steganography Sindoora

Overview :

Overview Introduction Implementation Network Steganography Steganography in VoIP streams LACK and HICCUPS protocols Conclusion


Introduction Steganography is derived from 2 Greek words “ steganos ” which means secret/hidden and “ graphia ” which means writing. Steganography is in practice since 2000 years. The main goal of steganography is to conceal the existence of secrets in a message.


Introduction Basic idea of Steganography


Implementation Information can be hidden in Text: Null Cipher: P resident’s e mbargo r uling s hould h ave i mmediate n otice. G rave s ituation a ffecting i nternational l aw. S tatement f oreshadows r uin o f m any n eutrals. Y ellow j ournals u nifying n ational e xcitement i mmensely. PERSHINGSAILSFROMNYJUNEI Every nth letter/word: Mr. Roy is going to meet Mr. Saxena. They are meeting at Statue of Liberty. The dawn is quite exciting for both of them. 060402 (Meet at dawn).


Implementation Image: JPEG uses discrete cosine transformations (DCT) Image before encryption Image after encryption


Implementation GIF and BMP stegencryption: Original Image Encrypted Image


Implementation Audio: ● Use frequencies inaudible to humans ● Embed data using the LSB ● Encoding musical tones Ex: A music stream in binary as 1011010 0 1110010 1 1000101 1 1010110 0 1101000 1 1001011 1 0001010 1 0110100 0 Embedding the secret message ‘10010001’

Network Steganography:

Network Steganography Hiding in Network Traffic Making our connection emulate the often-used port 80 traffic (HTTP), our message might pass without raising anyone’s suspicions. Hiding Data in Network Headers Using IP and TCP Headers for Steganography UDP and ICMP Headers Covert TCP

Using IP headers for Straganography:

Using IP headers for Straganography 4-bit version 4-bit IP header length 8-bit TOS 16-bit Total length (in bytes) 16-bit IP identification number 3-bit flags 13-bit fragment offset 8-bit time to live (TTL) 8-bit protocol 16-bit header checksum 32-bit source IP address 32-bit destination IP address options (if any) data

Using TCP header for Steganography:

Using TCP header for Steganography 16-bit source port number 16-bit destination port number 32-bit sequence number 32-bit acknowledgement number 32-bit source IP address 32-bit destination IP address options (if any) data

Steganography in VoIP streams:

Steganography in VoIP streams Voice over IP (VoIP), or IP telephony, is one of the services of the IP world which is changing the entire telecommunications landscape. For VoIP systems, four possible hidden communication scenarios may be considered

Hidden communication scenarios :

Hidden communication scenarios



LACK – Better than rest:

LACK – Better than rest Lost Packets Call Duration Hidden Data Insertion Rate (IR) Active warden




Conclusion No real-world steganographic method is perfect: whatever the method, the hidden information can be potentially discovered.


Referrences SANS institute Infosec reading Room 2001, Steganography: Past, Present, Future by James C. Judge. SANS institute Infosec reading Room 2002, A detailed look at steganographic techniques and their use in an Open-Systems Environment by Bret Dunbar. IEEE Security and privacy 2003, Hide and Seek: An Introduction to Steganography by Niels Provos and Peter Honeyman, University of Michigan. Real time steganography with RTP- 2007 LACK – a VoIP Steganographic Method Wojciech Mazurczyk and Józef Lubacz Steganography of VoIP Streams by Wojciech Mazurczyk, Krzysztof Szczypiorski, May 2008.

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