lexical approach

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The Lexical Approach : 

The Lexical Approach

Background : 

Background Standard View Language = Vocabulary + Grammar

Mental Lexicon : 

Mental Lexicon “LEXICON IS PRIME”

Mental lexicon : 

Mental lexicon the mental state of knowledge about words. It specifies how a word is spelt, pronounced, its parts of speech and what it means. But it is convenient to think of the lexicon as containing not the meaning of words, but the pointers to those meanings. The way that words are mentally represented does not directly affect the word recognition process.

Several Approches : 

Several Approches Lexical Syllabus (Willis 1990) Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching (Nattinger and DeCarrico 1992) The Lexical Approach (Lewis 1993)

Approach: Theory of language and learningKey Principles : 

Approach: Theory of language and learningKey Principles Developed by Michael Lewis in the early 1990s. Lexis is the basis of language. Language consists of grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar. The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is invalid; much language consists of multi-words 'chunks'. Collocation is used as an organizing principle. Successful language is a wider concept than accurate language.

Slide 7: 

Conscious effort to see things in larger, more holistic. Central attention to the lexicon and how the lexicon is coded formatted and organized. A central element of language teaching is raising students´awarness of, and developing their ability to “chunk” language succesfully.

Lexical chunks : 

Lexical chunks 'prefabricated phrases‘ 'lexical phrases‘ 'formulaic language‘ 'frozen and semi-frozen phrases‘ 'collocations` any pair or group of words which is commonly found together, or in close proximity.

Other types of lexical chunk : 

Other types of lexical chunk Idiom – not in a month of Sundays Sentence heads – Do you mind if I … Sentence tails – and so on Sentence stems – It can’t be helped Polywords - of course, as well as Binomials odds and ends and trinomials lock stock and barrel Multiword verbs – look after, run out of Compounds – cash flow, check-in

Lexical chunks : 

Lexical chunks The principles of the Lexical Approach have [been around] since Michael Lewis published 'The Lexical Approach' [16 years ago]. [It seems, however, that] many teachers and researchers do not [have a clear idea of] what the Lexical Approach actually [looks like] [in practice]

The role of lexical chunks for language acquisition : 

The role of lexical chunks for language acquisition The existence of lexical units appears to satisfy the individual’s communicative needs at a given moment and are later reused To ease the load of memory, economy of effort To be more native-like and error-free, to avoid spanglish

The Lexical Approach : 

The Lexical Approach 4 basic chunks: Words Fixed Expressions Semi-fixed Expressions Collocations

Words : 

Words It is important to distinguish between SINGLE and MULTI WORD items.

Fixed Expressions : 

Fixed Expressions Social greetings ( Good morning! It’s a lovely morning, isn’t it? Happy New Year!) Politeness phrases (No, thank you, I am fine. I will have to be going.) Idioms (It costs me an arm and a leg. It’s raining cats ans dogs.)

Semi-fixed Expressions : 

Semi-fixed Expressions Minimal variation ( It’s / That’s not my fault) Simple Slot (Could you pass ……., please? ) Sentence Heads ( What was really interesting /surpising /annoying was ….)

Semi-fixed Expressions : 

Semi-fixed Expressions Example: Academic paper There are broadly speaking two views of … The more traditional , usually associated with … and his / her collegues, suggests that …, while the more progressive view, associated with … suggests … . In this paper I wish to suggest a third position which suggests … .

Collocations : 

Collocations There are some combinations of words which co-occur naturally with greater than random frequency.

Collocations : 

Collocations A. Linguistic, not thematic Ex: Would you like a coffee? No thanks, I’ve had one. No thanks, I’ve drunk one.

Collocations : 

Collocations B. Arbitrary Tall building/ high building Tall boy / high boy* Look at a person/ problem Gaze at a person/ problem*

Collocations : 

Collocations C. Partnerships and Relations Frequency ( “The” – the cat, the car, the soil, the advice) Strength (Signature dish, square meal, a nice day, a good chance etc.)

Collocations : 

Collocations Words are not used ALONE It is more efficient to learn THE WHOLE and break it into parts than vice versa Improves FLUENCY and NATIVELIKENESS

Design: Objectives : 

Design: Objectives To realize a syllabus and accompanying materials based on lexical rather than grammatical principles. To cover the most frecuent words together with their patterns and uses.

Syllabus : 

Syllabus The lexical syllabus not only subsumes a structural syllabus,it is also indicates how the structures which make up syllabus should be exemplified.

Activities in the Classroom : 

Activities in the Classroom Intensive and extensive listening and reading in the target language. First and second language comparisons and translation-carried out chunk-for-chunk, rather than word-for-word-aimed at raising language awareness. Repetition and recycling of activities, such as summarizing a text orally one day and again a few days later to keep words and expressions that have been learned. Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context. Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations. Working with dictionaries and other reference tools.

The teacher´s role : 

The teacher´s role The teacher talk is the major source of learner input Organizing the technological system,providing scaffolding to help learners The teacher methodology: Task Planning Report

Learner´s role : 

Learner´s role Discoverer Data analyst

Materials : 

Materials Type 1 Course packages Collins COBUILD English course Type2 collections of vocabulary teaching activities Type 3 “Printout” versions of computer corpora Type4 concordancing programs and attached data sets

Concordancers and Corpora : 

Concordancers and Corpora Corpus : a collection of examples of texts/utterances of a language Concordancer : computer software which analyses corpora. See : http://www.collins.co.uk/Corpus/CorpusSearch.aspx http://sara.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/lookup.html

Procedure : 

Procedure Vary depending on the type of material employed Classroom procedure attention to lexical collocations Enable learners to discover collocations themselves Collocation noticing recording

Conclusion : 

Conclusion Lexis refers to only one componente of communicative competence. Proposals lack the full characterization of an approach or method. Still an idea in search of an approach and a methodology.

Thanks for your attention. : 

Thanks for your attention.