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THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION:

THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION

Appendix:

Appendix Evolution The Harappan Civilization Sources Origin Discovery Extent of the Harappan Civilization Urban Planning and Civic Amenities Common elements between Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa Houses Monumental Architecture Harappan way of life Agriculture Trade Social Stratification Art and Craft Seals Religion Decline of the Civilization Heritage

Evolution:

Evolution Civilization - an advanced stage of human cultural development by means of superior technology and complex economic relationship Chalcolithic Period - man used both copper and stone tools Bronze Age Civilization - importance of bronze in the growth of the first civilizations 2500BC - four bronze age civilizations emerged The Harappan Civilization – in northern and western parts of India and Pakistan The Mesopotamian Civilization - on the banks of river Euphrates and Tigris in modern Iraq The Chinese Civilization – in the valley of Hwang Ho and Yangtze rivers The Egyptian Civilization – on the banks of Nile river in Egypt

The Harappan Civilization:

The Harappan Civilization 20 th Century - discovery of Indus valley civilisation Indus valley civilization - also known as Harappan culture or Harappan Civilization 1921 - Harappan site first discovered at the modern site of Harappa in Pakistan 1922 - Mohenjo-Daro discovered Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro - both discovered in the Indus valley in the North-West Harappan culture belongs to the Bronze Age

Sources:

Sources The major sources of Harappan Civilisation are the following The Great Bath – throws light on the life and culture of the Harappan civilisation – indicates that the art of building had reached a perfection at that time – might have been used for religious purpose indicating Indians attached to ceremonial ablutions * in sacred tanks, pools and rivers – design portrays the sophisticated planning in the structural features relating to water supply and sewage disposal systems Citadel – raised area of each city was called Citadel – buildings constructed on mud brick platforms – houses of the ruling class, the Great Bath, the assembly hall and workshops were located on Citadel – it points to the elaborate planning that went into the development of the cities and justifies that Harappan civilisation was a urban civilisation 3. Seals – around 2000 seals belonging to Harappan Civilisation discovered – inscriptions establish the fact that the Harappans knew the art of writing – pictures engraved on the seals highlight religious belief of the Harappans – seals used by merchants and traders to stamp their goods give information about the trade and commerce Bearded Man – this stone sculpture found at Mohenjo-daro – has high artistic value – points to the existence of highly skilled artisans in the Harappan Civilisation Dancing Girl – this bronze statue found at Mohenjo-daro – shows high degree of development in the sculptor’s art * ablutions - washing or cleansing of the body, especially as part of a religious rite s

Origin:

Origin Civilization came into existence as a result of sudden migration of people with as urban civilization in the Indus basin The urban Harappan culture was an outgrowth to the extensive village cultures such as those of Kulli, Nal, Mehi and Amri These cultures contributed to the growth of the Harappa Civilization External stimulus to the growth provided by trade contacts with Mesopotamia and the availability of surplus food grains Discovery 1862 – Sir Alexander Surveyor found strange unidentified seals in the neighborhood of Harappa in Punjab 1901 – under Lord Curzon, Sir John Marshall who was the Director General of the Archeological Survey of India, under him the Harappan Civilisation came to be revealed 1921 – Dayaram Sahni, an officer in the Archeological Survey of India, got the ruins dug out in and around Harappa 1922 – R.D. Banerjee was led to a site by a Buddhist monk thinking it was a Stupa, while digging came across strange objects , this was city of Mohenjo-daro, “the mound of the dead”. Later Sir John Marshall ordered large scale excavations at both the sites

Extent of the Harappan Civilization:

Extent of the Harappan Civilization The entire area of the Harappan civilisation accounts for about 1,299,600 sq km. It extended from Suktagendor, on the sea coast of Baluchistan, in the west coast of Alamgirpur, in the upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab in the western UP in the east and from Manda in Jammu in north to Bhagatrav in Narmada estuary in the south The Harappan culture covered parts of Sindh, Gujarat. Undivided Punjab (including Harayana), Baluchistan, Jammu, Western parts of Uttar Pradesh and Northern parts of Rajasthan (Kalibangan). The largest sites of the Harappan Civilisation are Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Kalibangan and Lothal The remains found in these places are similar to those found in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

Urban Planning and Civic Amenities:

Urban Planning and Civic Amenities The Harappan culture has been found in its mature and flourishing stage The most striking feature of the Harappan civilization is its town-planning - Indus cities followed a grid pattern - basic layout shows a regular planning, alignment of streets, planning of houses and public buildings with provision of thoroughfares The chief characteristics of town-planning were: Each city was divided in two parts – the raised area called the “citadel” and the “lower town”. Important buildings like the Great Bath, the granary, the assembly hall and the workshops were located on the citadel. The lower town had the residential buildings The main street followed a grid pattern running from north to south or from east to west The houses at the street corners were rounded to allow carts to pass easily House drains emptied all waste water into the street drains The street crossed the main road at right angle, dividing the city into square or rectangular blocks

Common elements between Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa:

Common elements between Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa Both are located on the river banks, Mohenjo-Daro on the right bank of the river Indus and Harappa on the left bank of river Ravi Both measured around 5 Km in circuit Ground plans including layout of streets, blocks of houses were common to both the cities Water supply, drainage and granaries were common in both the cities Indoor plumbing, paved bathrooms, brick drainpipes, a network of brick-lined sewage channel , something Unique to Harappan civilization, is seen in both the cities

Houses:

Houses Residential buildings were built on high mound in order to protect from floods Houses were spacious, divided in well-sized rooms, containing wells and bathrooms and provided with covered drains connected with street drains Houses were made of bricks and wood Houses had courtyard and kitchen was placed in sheltered corner Houses had doors, windows and ventilators Doors and windows opened on the side of the streets and not on the main roads

Monumental Architecture:

Monumental Architecture Great contribution to the architectural designs is evident from the following buildings The Great Bath: largest building in Mohenjo-Daro, 108 x 180 feet with a bathing pool 39 x 28 feet and 8 feet deep Burnt bricks were used for walls and floors Two flights of steps on North and South leading into the tank To make pool watertight, burnt bricks and mortar lined with bitumen and gypsum was used Surrounding the bath were porticos(entrances/doorways) and set of rooms and a stairway that led to an upper story, some scholars believe that these rooms were provided for some kind of priesthood and some believe that the rooms were provided for changing clothes The uniqueness of the structure as well as the context in which it was found on the Citadel, has led scholars to believe that it was meant for some kind of ritual bath

Monumental Architecture:

Monumental Architecture Granaries: Discovered at several sites – Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Lothal and Kalibangan Size measured, at Mohenjo-Daro – 45.71 x 15.23 meters, at Harappa – 15.23 x 6.09 meters two rows of six Granaries At Harappa – to the south of the Granaries working floors consisting of rows of circular brick platform have been discovered, believed to be meant for thrashing of grains At Harappa - two-roomed barracks which possibly housed laborers were found At Harappa - location of the Granaries near river Ravi suggests that the food grains were brought to this place by boat It was built on a raised platform to protect it from floods The granary had ventilation to prevent grains from becoming mildewed(stale)

Monumental Architecture:

Monumental Architecture Dockyard: Discovered at Lothal site It was an important trading and manufacturing center of the Indus Valley Civilization It was made of baked bricks It was connected by channels to the Gulf of Cambay It was used for carrying overseas trade

Harappan way of Life:

Harappan way of Life The different aspects of Harappan Way of Life: Food Wheat was their principal staple food, other cereal eaten was barley They also ate date-palms Fish, poultry and mutton were in common use Milk, butter, oil and spices were also used Dress Most people used cotton clothes Rich people used woolen clothes Women wore some kind of skirts and covered the upper part with a cloak and used to cover head with a scarf Men wore dhoti and shawl around shoulders Many kind of spinning wheels and needles belonging to Harappan Civilization have been found

Agriculture:

Agriculture The Harappan people cultivated various crops, since the settlements were located along the fertile rivers Agriculture seemed to be backbone of the Harappan Civilization Three variety of wheat were known to the Harappans, Barley was also found at the sites Other crops such as Dates and leguminous plants such as filed peas were grown Sesame and mustard were grown for oil Number of millets grown in the area, rice husk was also found They sowed seeds in the plains in November when the flood waters receded and reaped the harvest of wheat and barley in April before the advent of next floods No ploughshare has been discovered but the furrows discovered show that the fields were ploughed Since the sites are in semi-arid areas, irrigation was needed for agriculture Traces of canals have been discovered, it is likely that the water used for irrigation was drawn from wells The Indus people were the earliest people to produce cotton

Trade:

Trade The elaborate social structure and standard of living by the presence of granaries, seals, regulated weight s and measures indicate the existence of highly developed system of trade The Harappans not only traded in India but also other parts of Asia The Harappans carried on considerable trade in stone, metal, shell etc., through barter Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were important centers of metallurgy, producing tools and weapons and kitchenware for wide distribution Lothal and Surkotada provided cotton to expanding townships of Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Banawali etc. Balakot and Chanhudaro were centers for shell working and bangle making Lothal and Chanhudaro were centers for manufacturing of beads of carnelian The Harappans had commercial contacts with western neighbors Lothal, Surkotada and Balakot were important coastal towns which connected them to Mesopotamia and other west Asian countries Trade used to be carried by sea to countries like Bahrain and Persian Gulf The Harappan merchants wee exporting and importing a number of commodities from the West and Central Asian countries - Gold from North Karnataka and Afghanistan - Copper from Rajasthan, South India and Baluchistan and Arabia - Lead from Far East or South India

Social Stratification:

Social Stratification Social stratification or division of society into different groups is visible in the Harappan Civilization, the following factors indicate the existence of social hierarchy Each city was divided into two sections The ‘Citadel or Acropolis was possibly occupied by members of the ruling class The Lower town, containing brick houses occupied by the common people The variation in the size of dwelling houses also point to some kind of division The smallest have no more than two rooms The largest are so vast as to rank almost as palaces No religious structures like temples have been found at any Harappan site Big buildings like Great Bath or the Granaries indicate the existence of a ruling class that could mobilize labor, collect taxes and build huge structures The highly developed civic life shows the presence of a class of administrators who maintained the whole system In many areas within and around the Indus system, there existed tribal populations engaged in hunting, fishing, etc., who provided honey, fish, wild fruits, firewood etc. to the Indus people There existed peasants who provided food for the people living in the cities The cities had a wide range of specialist crafts groups such as potters, stone workers, metal workers in copper, bronze, silver and gold, jewelers, stonecutters,, bead makers, sculptors, masons etc. There were groups of merchants who specialized in internal and external trade

PowerPoint Presentation:

Art and Craft All the works of Harappan art, including figurines of clay and terracotta, stone and bronze sculpture, seals and beads, are product of skilled craftsmanship Important crafts Weaving Boat-making Seal-making Terracotta manufacture The subjects portrayed on the seals and terracotta figures include human beings, animals, birds etc. The human figurines were shown wearing heavy ornaments and jewelry and elaborate headgear The most common terracotta models were of bullock carts and ploughs The goldsmith made jewelry of silver, gold and precious stones The Harappans knew art of bead making The potters wheel was in full use and the Harappans produced their own characteristic pottery which was made glossy and shining Earthen vessels and pottery were decorated with black geometrical designs The large jars with narrow necks and red pots with black decoration bear evidence of their artistic skill

PowerPoint Presentation:

Art and Craft Sculpture The Harappan artists were great sculptors One of the striking finds at Mohenjo-Daro was a statue of yogi draped in a shawl worn over left shoulder and under right arm, he has a beard and his eyes are half-closed, it is made of limestone and its height is 17.5 cms The bronze statues of dancing girls found at Mohenjo-Daro is another mater-piece of art, it shows vigor, variety and ingenuity(creativity). The right arm of the dancing girl rests on the hip and the left arm is heavily bangled. It holds a small bowl against her left leg The other bronze figure was that of a humped bull A bust of a male figure made of red stone was also discovered A number of bronze figures of animals, buffalo and rams and some models or carts have been unearthed The sculptures in metal were done through the special lost wax process, in this process the wax figures are covered with coating of clay, then the wax was melted by heating and the hollow mould was filled with molten metal which took the original shape of the object

PowerPoint Presentation:

Art and Craft Ornaments Ornaments were worn by both men and women Some of the common ornaments were necklaces, finger-rings, bangles, armlets, anklets, nose rings, fan-shaped head-dress and ear-rings which were made of gold, silver, precious stones and ivory Toys and Amusements People played games and had many other form of entertainment They played dice and went on hunting and fishing expeditions Their main musical instruments were the drum and the lyre Toys of birds, animals, figurines, carts and whistles were also made

Seals:

Seals The seals used by the Harappans depict their artistic skills, about 2000 seals have been discovered A great majority compromises short inscriptions with picture of one horned bull, buffalo, the tiger, the goat, the elephant and the rhinoceros Most of the seals are rectangular or square , some are circular Harappan seals reveal the script, trade, religion and beliefs of the people Seals of PASHUPATI show that the people believed in Shiva The unicorn seal shows their mythological beliefs Materials used for making seals is terracotta, steatite, agate etc. The seals were used by merchants and traders to stamp their goods The seals were found in different regions indicating that the Harappan trade had spread over a vast area

Religion:

Religion Except for the discovery of altars at Kalibangan, no cult objects, temple or place of worship have been found at any of the Harappan sites Harappan people had many features , of later Hinduism, such as worship of the Mother Goddess, PASHUPATI Shiva, Sacred animals and trees etc. Indus people worshipped Mother Goddess who bears some resemblance to the one that was worshipped in the Middle East and Europe In one of the figures, a plant is shown growing from a women's body, believed to represent Mother Earth, the Harappans therefore looked upon the earth as a Goddess of Fertility From the discovery of numerous symbols at Harappa, it has been inferred that some sort of worship intimately connected with Shiva Animal worship formed part of religious beliefs of the Harappan people Amulets have been discovered in large numbers, the Harappans believed in the existence of ghosts and evil forces that could be done away with the amulets

Decline of the Civilization:

Decline of the Civilization The Harappan Civilization declined around 1800 BC, some of the likely causes are: Floods and Climate Change: the amount of rainfall increased in 3000 BC and then declined, this had adversely affected agriculture and stock breeding Other believed the decrease in fertility due to the increase in salinity caused by expansion of the neighboring desert led to the decline The sudden subsidence or uplift of the land resulting in floods is also believed to be one of the reasons for the decline of the Harappan Civilization Deforestation: Since the Civilization was a Bronze age culture, enormous quantities of wood was needed to produce Bronze Wood was needed to produce jewelry, to bake bricks, pottery, stoneware and to make boats and furniture This cold have lead to deforestation leading to climate change in the region and finally to the decline of the area

Decline of the Civilization:

Decline of the Civilization Attack: Some historians like Mortimer Wheeler believed that the invading Aryans destroyed the Indus settlements He believed that in the last phase of Mohenjo-Daro, men, women and children were massacred in the streets and houses, which is evident from the skeleton of 13 males and females and one child in a single room Earthquake: It is believed by some scholars that earthquakes caused changes in the course of the Indus river which led to the inundation(flood) of the hinterland of Mohenjo-Daro It might have also caused incalculable damage

Heritage:

Heritage The decline of the physical aspects of the Harappan civilization did not lead to the total disappearance of all the traits(qualities) of the civilization The Harappan way of making baked pottery, bricks, beads, jewelry, textiles etc. was adopted by the later civilizations One of the most remarkable achievements of the Harappan people was the cultivation of the cotton which was adopted by the Egyptians after several centuries The worship of PASHUPATI Shiva, the female deity as Mother Goddess, sacred trees, animals, serpent, religious symbols etc. Which were prevalent during the Harappan period were later adopted in later Hinduism and have continued till date

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