chapter-2 - Is matter around us pure

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CHAPTER-2 IS MATTER AROUND US PURE:

PRESENTED BY- SHREET MISHRA CLASS-9 TH B(2 ND SHIFT) 2012-2013 ROOL NO.-25 SCHOOL-KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA, GOMTINAGAR, LUCKNOW CHAPTER-2 IS MATTER AROUND US PURE

WHAT IS MATTER?:

WHAT IS MATTER? ANY THING THAT OCCUPY SPACE AND HAVE MASS IS CALLED MATTER. Ex- etc.

A SCEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MATTER IS GIVEN BELOW-:

A SCEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MATTER IS GIVEN BELOW-

Pure Substance- A pure substance is one which is made up of only one kind of particle.:

Pure Substance- A pure substance is one which is made up of only one kind of particle. EX- PLATINUM Pure substance are of two types- 1-Element 2-Compound

Element- An element is a substance which cannot be split up into two or more simpler substance. It is made up of only one kind of particles. Ex-iron(fe) :

Element- An element is a substance which cannot be split up into two or more simpler substance. It is made up of only one kind of particles. Ex-iron( fe )

Element are also of three types- :

Element are also of three types- Metals- Nonmetals- helium Metalloids- sulfur (semisolid)

Compound- A compound is a substance which is made up of two or more element chemically combined in a fixed ratio by mass. Ex-water(H2O) NOTE- A compound can be broken into two or more element but not by physical processes.:

Compound- A compound is a substance which is made up of two or more element chemically combined in a fixed ratio by mass. Ex-water(H2O) NOTE- A compound can be broken into two or more element but not by physical processes.

MIXTURE- A mixture is a substance which is consist of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. Ex-:

MIXTURE- A mixture is a substance which is consist of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. Ex- Mixture of salt and water Mixture are of two types- 1-Homogeneous Mixture 2-Heterogeneous Mixture

Homogeneous Mixture:

Homogeneous Mixture Those mixture in which the substance are completely mixed together and particles are not distributed uniformly. Ex-mixture of sugar and water- .

Heterogeneous Mixture:

Heterogeneous Mixture Those mixture in which the substance remains separated and the particles are uniformly distributed. Ex-Mixture of salt and water-

Solution:

Solution It is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. It has two parts- 1-solute-substance in lesser quantity in solution. 2-solvent-substance in larger quantity in solution Solution of sugar and water- in this solution water is solvent and sugar is solute.

True Solution:

True Solution Characteristics of true solution are- 1-Particle size is less then 1mm. 2-The particle will show Brownian movement. 3-Electrophoresing will happen.

Types of solution-:

Types of solution- 1-Aqueous solution- solution having water as solvent. 2-Non-aqueous solution- solution having substance other than water as solvent. 3-Saturated solution- It is a solution in which no further solute can be dissolve at a given temperature. 4-Unsaturated solution- It is a solution in which more solute can be dissolve at a given temperature.

Solubility:

Solubility The maximum amount of a solute which can be dissolved in 100 grams of a solvent at a specified temperature is known as solubility of that solute in that solvent(at a given temperature).

Colloid:

Colloid A colloid is a solution in which the size of solute particles is 1nm-100nm.Ex-blood

Suspension:

Suspension A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the small particles of a solid are spread throughout a liquid without dissolving in it. Ex-muddy water-

processes of separation :

processes of separation Some processes of separation are- 1-Evaporation 2-Sublimation 3-Centrifugation 4-seperating funnel 5-Distiallation 6-Fractinal Distillation 7-Cystalisation 8-Chromotography 9-Electrolysis

1-Evaporation:

1-Evaporation It is a process to separate volatile substance from non-volatile substance by heating them below their boiling point. Ex-salt from sea water.

2-Sublimation:

2-Sublimation It is a process to separate sublimable substance from a non-sublimable substance by heating.

3-Centrifugation:

3-Centrifugation It is a process to separate minute suspended particles from liquid when spun rapidly. The heavier particles are forced to bottom and lighter ones towards top. Ex- separation of ghee from curd

4-Separating funnel:

4-Separating funnel It is a process to separate two miscible liquid from each other by using separating funnel. Ex- separation of oil from water.

5-Distillation:

5-Distillation It is a process to separate two miscible liquid from each other by heating them at their boiling points followed by condensation. Note-The difference between the boiling points of two liquid must be more than 25 Kelvin(K).

6-FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION:

6-FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION It is a process to separate two miscible substance from each other by heating them at their boiling points followed by condensation. Through fractional distillation, we can separate two substance having difference between their boiling points less than 25 Kelvin(K).Ex-refining of petroleum

7-crystalisation:

7-crystalisation It is a process of separation by making pure crystals of a substance from its super saturated solution. Ex- crystals of copper sulphate (CUSO4).

8-chromotography:

It is a process to separate different colours soluble in same liquid. Ex- 1-Separation of drug from blood. 2-Separation of chlorophyll from leaves. 3-Separation of colours from die. 8-chromotography

9-Electrolysis:

It is a process of separation with the help of electricity. Through Electrolysis we can separate compounds also. In this process direct current(DC) is pass through the substance. 9-Electrolysis

Concentration of solution:

Concentration of solution 1-Mass%- 2-Volume%-

Physical change:

Physical change The change in which only transformation of state is happen, no new substance is made are called physical change. These changes are reversible. Ex- Melting of ice.

Chemical CHANGE:

Chemical CHANGE It is a change in which a new substance is made.In this change the chemical properties of the substance is change. These changes are irreversible. Ex- Coking of food.

Chpter-2-Is matter around us pure:

The END THANKYOU Chpter-2-Is matter around us pure

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