Role and Relevance of Endosulfan in Agriculture

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Role and Relevance of Endosulfan in Agriculture:

Role and Relevance of Endosulfan in Agriculture

Agriculture - Segmentation:

Agriculture - Segmentation Broad Acre Large land holdings typically 2000 to 10,000 hectares. USA, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, Australia is largely broad acre. Aerial spraying of pesticides is widely prevalent. Agriculture is intensive and yields high Small Acre Small land holdings typically 1 to 10 hectares. Agriculture in India, China, Pakistan, large parts of Africa and Asia is small acre. Use and application of pesticides are manual with backpack sprayers and minimal mechanisation. Agriculture is sustainable with varying yields.

Chemical Crop Protection:

Chemical Crop Protection Insecticides Weedicides (Herbicides) Fungicides Plant Growth Regulators

Crop Protection Chemicals:

Crop Protection Chemicals Crop Protection Chemicals are the last input in the agriculture chain Farmers spend on Tillage, Irrigation, Fertilizers, Farm labour etc. at last Agro chemicals If not used, entire loss Crop Protection Chemicals protect all investments farmers make in their crops

Insecticides:

Insecticides Widely used by the farmer to protect crops from insect attacks and infestations contact or systemic broad spectrum or selective soft on beneficial, pollinators and predators

Slide 6:

S HARE O F L OSSES C AUSED B Y D IFFERENT P ESTS 33% 15% 26% 26% Insects Rodents & Others Weeds On an average 18% of the crop yield is lost due to pests Diseases (Annual monetary loss: Rs.60,000 Crores Source: Working Subgroup on Plant Protection, Planning Commission, 2001) NCIPM

Slide 7:

Cultural Biological Mechanical Chemical Components of I.P.M. Integration of all the methods of Pest Management is essential as any single method will not be effective

Slide 8:

Insects Harmful : Vegetarian “Pests” Beneficials : Non Vegetarian Endosulfan-- Controls pests and spares beneficials Harmful insects are of two types Sucking Chewing Endosulfan controls both types

Slide 9:

Beneficial Insects

Natural & Chemical Pest Management:

Natural & Chemical Pest Management NaturalEnemies, Beneficials,, Parasites, Predators (Defenders) Pests and Defenders appear at the same time “Manage Pests” rather than “control” Use Selective Insecticides-e.g. Endosulfan Manage pests and save Parasites Predators

Local needs:

Local needs We have small farms Mixed Cropping Different stages of Crop Hot and humid climate Mixed pest population-sucking chewing Our farmers need products that are versatile Endosulfan is recommended by Agricultural Universities as its best suited in these situations

Pest and Pollinator Management:

Pest and Pollinator Management Pest and Pollinator appear at the same time Challenge is to manage the pest and allow bee visits Use bee friendly insecticides Endosulfan is soft on Honey bees

Relevance of Endosulfan:

Multi Pest Multi Crop Safe to Beneficials Safe to Pollinators Avoids Resistance Breaks Resistance Economical Relevance of Endosulfan

Endosulfan – Journey in India:

Has been in use as a broad spectrum insecticide since the 70’s largely in cotton and other field crops Was imported into India until 1980 India begins manufacturing Endosulfan from the early 80’s. There are three Indian manufacturer’s of Endosulfan active including Hindustan Insecticides Ltd, a Govt. of India enterprise Endosulfan is today the most widely used generic insecticide in India with usage in cotton, pulses, Tea, Mango, Vegetables and oilseeds The only insecticide which is soft on Pollinators such as honeybees and beneficial such as ladybird beetle, chrysoperla etc Widely recommended for use during pollination Widely recommended for use in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Insect Resistance Management (IRM) programs Farmers in Andhra Pradesh are the largest users of Endosulfan in the country and will stand to lose the most if there is a move to ban the use of Endosulfan in the country Endosulfan – Journey in India

Slide 15:

Insecticides Insect Pests Natural enemies Remarks J W PBW/ SBW ABW TC Young Grown up A. Organochlorinate Endosulfan Good Good Good Good Poor Very good Safe Safer to the natural enemies, low resistance to ABW early in the season B. Synthetic pyrethroids Poor Poor Very good Poor Poor Poor Toxic Excessive use can cause resurgence of whitefly and ABW, high level of resistance to ABW Performance of various insecticides against insect pests and safety to natural enemies of cotton J= Jassid; W= Whitefly; SBW= Spotted bollworm; PBW= Pink bollworm; ABW= American bollworm; TC= Tobacco caterpillar

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