WOC Final Draft

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Breast Cancer in Young Adult WOMEN :

Breast Cancer in Young Adult WOMEN By: sHAUNTIA lOVETT

Breast Cancer on Rise in Younger Adult Women :

Breast Cancer on Rise in Younger Adult Women Please Listen to this study featured on the Today Show with Matt Lauer and NBC News Chief Medical Editor, Nancy Snyderman

Important facts about breast cancer:

Important facts about breast cancer Breast Cancer is a cancer that develops in the tissues of the breast (Medline Plus, 2013). It also forms from abnormal cells in the breast (Healthfinder, 2013). There are two main types of breast cancer which include ductal carcinoma, which begins in the ducts and moves milk from the breast to the nipple, and lobular carcinoma, which begins in the lobules, which make milk (Medline Plus, 2013). IMPORTANT FACT: Ductal Carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. Breast cancer can be invasive (spreading from milk duct and/or lobule to other tissues in the breast) or noninvasive, which is also referred to as “in situ” (has not yet penetrated the breast tissue) (Medline Plus, 2013). Estrogen can cause cancer growth. If cancer has estrogen receptors on the surface of its cells, this may be called, ER positive cancer. Many women may have HER2 positive breast cancer as well, and this gene assists in helping cells divide, grow, and repair themselves, but too many copies of this gene may make the disease more aggressive (Medline Plus, 2013).

Determining whether you have breast cancer :

Determining whether you have breast cancer Symptoms Lumps: lumps may be in the breast or armpit, may appear to be firm, non- painful, and have uneven edges Changes in breast or nipple size, shape, or feel Fluid from the nipple such as blood or yellowish-green pus Symptoms of severe breast cancer include bone pain, breast pain, skin ulcers, swelling of the armpit, and weight loss. Diagnosis Breast MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): identifies breast lumps and abnormality on mammograms Breast Ultrasound: determines whether lump is solid or fluid-filled Breast Biopsy : uses needle aspiration CT (Computed Tomography) Scan: examines the spread of the cancer Mammogram: screens for breast cancer and identifies breast lumps PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan: checks for spread of cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (checks for spread of cancer to lymph nodes)

Prevalence of breast cancer in the general population & Younger adult women :

Prevalence of breast cancer in the general population & Younger adult women Every 1 and 8 women are diagnosed with breast cancer during the course of their lives. Besides lung cancer, breast cancer kills more women in the U.S than any other cancer (Medline Plus, 2013). Women under 40 have a 5% chance of getting breast cancer (Susan G. Komen for the Cure, 2011). Shockingly, women under the age of 50 years are more likely to have invasive breast cancers ( Odle , 2012). Men may be diagnosed with breast cancer as well. However, breast cancer is 100 times more likely to appear in women than in men, in fact, it only effects 1 out of every 1000 men (American Cancer Society, 2013).

Literature Review :

Literature Review

Determinants and Risk Factors:

Determinants and Risk Factors In “Epidemiology of B reast C ancer in Y oung W omen ,” Pollan (2010) examines the epidemiology, incidence, and risk factors associated with breast cancer in young women. She finds younger black women to have higher incidence rates than younger white women, and finds an increase in breast cancer among young women who live in Spain ( Pollan , 2010). Yet, she does not identify a specific age range for younger women in her study, noting that different studies may refer to young women as those younger than 30, 35, 40, 45, or 50 ( Pollan , 2010). Yet , a commonality discovered among all of these populations is that genetic predisposition is a major determinant of breast cancer in younger women. The claims of Pollan are substantiated by Malone et al. (2011) who study the relationship between inherited predisposition, breast cancer phenotypes, and mortality in “Family History of Breast Cancer in Relation to Tumor Characteristics and Mortality in a Population-Based Study of Young Women with Invasive Breast Cancer.” These researchers gathered a population of 1260 women under the age of 46 who had been diagnosed with invasive breast cancers. Findings on the women who had a first-degree family history of breast cancer were compared with women who had a second-degree family history of breast cancer. They conclude that family history is directly correlated with the early development of breast cancer in young women and that those with a first-degree family history of breast cancer may have better outcomes and survival rates (Malone, et al., 2011).

Determinants continued :

Determinants continued Yankaskas validates but extends the findings of Pollan and Malone et al. In “Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Young Women,” Yankaskas (2005) examines the low incidence of breast cancer in young women in comparison to older women, the severity of breast cancer in both populations, the high rates of reoccurrence in younger women, and the low survival rates of younger women. The research focuses primarily on women who are 40 years of age and younger. It is concluded that the common risk factors among younger women and older women, which are more defined in younger women are race , family history, radiation, and late age at first birth and risk factors specific to younger women include contraceptive use, radiation, and smoking ( Yankaskas , 2005). Yankaskas found that the comparable determinants of breast cancer among younger and older women to more prevalent and more threatening in younger women. From her study, age contributes to the aggressiveness of breast cancer. Comparatively, in “Breast Cancer: Age Related Factors,” Odle (2012) examines the ways in which age may have contrasting effects on younger women and older women. The researcher explores the developmental stages of the breast , the early onset of menarche, age at pregnancy, and breast density and the ways in which age during each of these phases may make one more or less susceptible to invasive and non-invasive cancer ( Odle , 2012). The researcher concludes that the abovementioned determinants are risk factors for young women.

Determinants conTINUED :

Determinants conTINUED In “Breast Cancer Risk in Young Women, and History of Selected Medical Conditions”, Wess et al. (1999) explore the relationship between medical conditions and breast cancer risk . The study includes 2,173 breast cancer cases from three places in the United States. The women were under 55 years of age and the medical conditions examined in possible correlation with increased risk of breast cancer are thyroid disease, gallbladder disease, colorectal polyps, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and surgery for endometriosis ( Wess , et al., 1999). At the end of their study, they do not find women who had a history of the aforementioned illnesses at greater risk for breast cancer. In many cases, the medical conditions outlined by Wess et al. (1999) are a result of one’s living conditions. In In “Breast Cancer in Young Women in a Limited Resource Environment ,” Bastro and Apffelstaedt (2010 ) assess the ways in which young women, 35 years and younger, in developing countries, who have been diagnosed with breast cancer, have fewer resources than those in Western society. The population of interest are 141 women in South Africa. The researchers find that many of their participants were from low-income environments, therefore lacking medical coverage, medical awareness, limited levels of education, and negative perceptions of modern medicine ( Bastro & Apffelstaedt , 2010) . Many of adversities worsen their condition.

Determinants continued :

Determinants continued As gathered from Bastro and Apffelstaedt , living in a limited resource environment can be a hindrance to attaining adequate medical care. F urthermore , one’s environment may be linked to one’s socioeconomic status . Borugain et al. (2011) extends the claims of Bastro and Appffelstaedt in “Breast Cancer Incidence and Neighborhood Income ,” where they examine the relationship between income and the diagnosis of breast cancers in women 19 and older, who were pooled from a Canadian Cancer Registry. Most studies have linked poor health status or poor prognosis to low-income or socio-economic status. Yet, these researcher finds higher incidences of breast cancer in neighborhoods with high incomes than those in lower income neighborhoods ( Borugain et al., 2011). In “Recommendations for the Surveillance of Young women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer,” Hadden ( 2007) examines the screening reports of ultrasounds, MRI’s, and mammography. This study focuses particularly on young, at-risk women and seeks to understand whether these surveillance techniques put younger women at a higher risk of getting breast cancer. The researcher hypothesizes that these early detection methods do not increase mortality among young women ( Hadden , 2007). This study ultimately ended up being inconclusive, in that the author simply did not find this one study to be sufficient in proving his hypothesis. Yet, Hadden (2007) finds family history, prior breast and/or chest wall radiation , the presence of abnormal cells in breast tissue, lobular carcinoma in situ detection (LCIS) at biopsy, and history of breast cancer to be linked to breast cancer in younger women .

Web of causation :

Web of causation

PowerPoint Presentation:

Breast Cancer in Younger Adult Women Genetic Predisposition / Family History BRCA 1 & BRCA2 Oral Contraceptive in women younger 35 Early menarche Late first birth or in 30s Race (Medical Condition) Ovarian cysts with no performance of oophorectomy Breast density Limited Resource Environment Age Socio-Economic Status Abnormal cells in breast tissue Radiation Exposure Income Smoking

Social Work Perspective :

Social Work Perspective

Social Work Perspective :

Social Work Perspective Phases of Meta-Ethnography Phase 1: Identifying experiences, needs and concerns of younger women with breast cancer as an intellectual interest. Phase 2: Conducting a systematic search for relevant qualitative studies. Phase 3: Reading the articles, paying particular attention to metaphors (i.e. themes, perspectives, concepts) used by the authors to describe and/or explain women’s experiences, needs and concerns. Phase 4: Developing a tabular format to compare studies . Listing key metaphors in each study. Phase 5: Translating studies into one another. Examining relations between metaphors within a study and between studies . Phase 6: Synthesizing these translations by determining if some metaphors could encompass other metaphors, thus translating them into each other. The synthesis took the form of a ‘reciprocal translation.’ That is, similar studies made it possible for each study to be translated into the metaphors of others and vice versa. Phase 7: Publishing the meta-ethnography. Note. Phases of Meta-Ethnography Chart. Taken from “The Experiences, Needs and Concerns of Younger Women with Breast Cancer: A Meta-ethnography,” by Adams et al., 2011, Psycho-Oncology, 20, p.852. 

Concepts that arise from Meta-ethnography :

Social contexts Life-course Cultural context Motherhood Needs and concerns Support Information Childcare Counseling Spiritual Support Fertility and Sexuality Issues Reproduction Body Fear Sexual activity Feeling ‘out of sync’ Processes Balancing Normalising Changing Local context Family/relationship status Social support Doctor–patient relationship Concepts that arise from Meta-ethnography Note. Concepts that Arise from Meta- Ethnography . Adapted from “The Experiences ,. “Needs and Concerns of Younger Women with Breast Cancer: A Meta-ethnography,” by Adams et al., 2011, Psycho-Oncology, 20, p. 853.

Community- BASED REPSPONSE :

Community- BASED REPSPONSE

Program for young women with breast cancer at Dana-farber/brgiham and WOMEN’S CANCER CENTER (DF/BWCC) :

Program for young women with breast cancer at Dana- farber / brgiham and WOMEN’S CANCER CENTER (DF/BWCC) Population Goals Components Effectiveness (since 2005) Women 42 years and younger at diagnosis Promote awareness as it relates to the experiences of young women Increase already available services (genetic counseling, survivorship, sexual health clinics, etc.) Provide educational & psychosocial support Provide access to workshops, educational seminars, telephone support groups, & patient newsletters Assist health care professionals Education Clinical Care Research Has served more than 1,600 women at age 42 or younger over the last six years More than 100 young women have participated in facilitated groups, and as a result, support networks have flourished The Young Women’s Forum that began 8 years ago now includes lectures from medical professionals, a survivor panel, and an “ask the expert” session A multi-institutional prospective cohort study of women with breast cancer 40 and younger in 2006 was developed Recently begun a new lecture series in 2011 Currently pilot testing “Young and Strong,” which is an exportable model of the current program that will serve young women with breast cancer who are obtaining care outside of cancer center Note: DF/BWCC Chart. Adapted from “Model Program to Improve Care for a Unique Cancer Population: Young Women with Breast Cancer, “ by Partridge et al. (2012), Journal of Oncology Practice, 8 (5), p.107.

Health-Related Policy :

Health-Related Policy

Breast and cervical cancer Prevention and treatment act :

Breast and cervical cancer Prevention and treatment act

National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection program :

National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection program

Conclusion:

Conclusion Breast cancer in younger adult is fairly uncommon. Breast cancer in younger women is more aggressive than in older women and younger women are more likely to have poorer prognoses. Breast cancer in younger women is highly linked to genetic predisposition. We can aid younger adult women with breast cancer by creating support initiatives based on their personal needs, through counseling, education, social support, etc. We can improve survival rates among young adult women with breast cancer by providing services to detect this disease early on.

References:

References Adams, E., McCann, L., Armer , J., Richardson, A. Stark, D., Watson, E., & Hubbard, G. (2011). The Experiences, Needs, and Concerns of Younger Women with Breast Cancer: A Meta-ethnography. Psycho-Oncology 20 (1): 851-861. Bastro , S. & Apffelstaedt , J.P. (2010). Breast Cancer in Young Women in Limited Resource Environment. World Journal of Surgery, 34 (1):1427-1433. Borugian , M.J., Spinelli , J.J., Abanto , Z., XU, C.L. & Wilkins, R. (2011).Breast Cancer Incidence and Neighborhood Income. Health Reports, 22 (2): 7-13. Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Act of 2000. (2013). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/nbccedp/legislation/law106-354.htm . Breast Cancer. (2013). Medline Plus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/meedlineplus/ency/article/000913.htm . Google Images. n .d. [Photography of breast cancer ribbon. Retrieved from http://delhi4cats.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/pink-ribbon3. jpg . Google Images. n .d. [ Photography of conceptual model]. Retrieved from http://us.cdn3.123rf.com/168nwm/ kgtoh /kgtoh1105/kgtoh110500014/9464573-process-relationship-business-strategy-management-process-concept-diagram-illustration.jpg. Google Images. n.d. [Photography of health policy word cloud]. Retrieved from http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_D3F3vg0tJWs/S8YhrEBRkuI/AAAAAAAAAOs/t6Irx986q9c/s400/health_policy_wordle.gif. Google Images. n .d. [ Photography of women with breast cancer ]. Retrieved from http ://www.ahchealthenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Breast-Cancer-Story-Women-Under-40. jpg . Hadden , W.E. (2007). Recommendations for the Surveillance of Young Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer. Australasian Radiology, 51 (1): 1-11 . Latest News Vid. (2013, February 27). Study: Breast Cancer on Rise in Young Women. Retrieved July 19, 2013, from, http:// www.youtube.com / watch?v =- pN0AVTLfJA. Malone , K.E., Daling , J.R., Doody , D.R., O’Brien, C., Resler , A., Ostrander, E.A. & Porter, P.L. (2011). Family History of Breast Cancer in Relation to Tumor Characteristics on Mortality in a Population-Based Study of Young Womenwith Invasive Breast Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 20 (12): 2560-2571 . Olde , T. (2012). Breast Cancer: Age-Related Factors. Radiologic Technology, 84 (1): 55-79. Partridge, A.H., Ruddy, K.J., Kennedy, J. & Winer , E.P. (2012). Model Program to Improve Care for a Unique Cancer Population: Young Women with Breast Cancer. Journal of Oncology Practice, 8 (5): 105-110. Paying for Breast Cancer Screening. (2013). American Cancer Society . Retrieved from http:// www.cancer.org /cancer/ breastcancer / moreinformation / breastcancerearlydetection /breast-cancer-early-detection-paying-for- br - ca -screening. Pollan , A. (2010). Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Young Women. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 123 (1): 3-6. Susan G. Komen for the Cure. (2011). Facts of Life: Young Women and Breast Cancer. Medline Plus. Retrieved from http://ww5.komen.org/ uploadedFiles / Content_Binaries /806- 352a.pdf. The Basics: What is Breast Cancer? (2013). Health Finder. Retrieved from http:// healthfinder.gov / HealthTopics / Category /health-conditions-and-diseases/cancer/get-tested-for-breast-cancer#the-basics_3% 00. Weiss, H.A., Brinton, L.A., Potischman , N.A., Brogan, D., Coates, R.J., Gammon, M.D., Malone, K.E. & Schoenberg, J.B. (1999). Breast Cancer Risk in Young Women and History of Selected Medical Conditions. International Journal of Epidemiology, 28 (1): 816-823. What are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer? (2013). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www. cancer.org /cancer/ breastcancer / detailedguide /breast-cancer-risk- factors. Yankaskas , B.C. (2005). Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Young Women. Breast Disease, 23 (1): 3-8.

authorStream Live Help