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ISSN : 2348-8808 Print 2348-8867 Online Journal of AgriSearch 24: 257-262 Studies on Association of Yield and Quality Contributing Parameters in Faba Bean Vicia faba L. SK SINGH SHAILESH CHAND GAUTAM CB YADAV AND RAM NIVAS Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology Kumarganj Faizabad U.P . India ABSTRACT The present investigation was conducted in normal soil under irrigated condition. The experimental material constituted 25 germplasm lines with check variety Vikrant. A wide range of variation for different characters and comparison of means of germplasm lines using least signifcant differences indicated existence of very high degree of variability for all the characters in the germplasm collection. The superior lines identifed for seed yield and other characters may be used as donor parents in hybridization programme for the characters to which they showed high mean performance. Seed yield per plant showed highly signifcant and positive correlation with plant height followed by days to maturity and showed non- signifcant correlation with other character. The characters identifed above as important direct and indirect yield components merit due consideration in formulating selection strategy in faba bean for selection of high yielding varieties. The six clusters in divergence analysis contained genotypes of heterogeneous origin thereby indicating no parallelism between genetic and geographic diversity. Keywords: Phenotypic genotypic correlation heritability genetic diversity path and cluster analysis Corresponding author email: scgautamgpb5gmail.com INTRODUCTION Faba bean Vicia faba L. is an important pulse crop of the world cultivated under both irrigated and rainfed conditions Singh et al. 2012b. It is crop which can be surviving under any adversity and can be grown under any climatic adversity. An excellent crop foe climate change circumstance and a cheap source of vegetable protein Singh et al. 2013b. Faba bean is an annual legume botanically known as Vicia faba L is one of the oldest crops grown by man and is used as a source of protein in human diet as fodder and forage crop for animals and for available nitrogen in the biosphere Singh and Bhatt 2012b. Faba bean growth habit is mainly indeterminate growth and fower induction continue while the lower part of the stem bears fowers and then pods Singh et al. 2012c. Reproductive nodes usually begin between nodes three and fve typically continuing to approximately node twenty to twenty nine Singh et al. 2013a. The fowers are borne on racemes which develop acropetally the pedicel lengths vary considerably. The center of origin is believed to be between the oriental Mediterranean countries and Afghanistan De Candolle 1882 Cubero 1974 Ladizinsky 1975 Zohary 1977 Abdulla 1979. Faba bean with its 30 of seed protein content constitutes a valuable source of protein for food in developing countries such as Asia Central America and Africa where a large defciency of animal protein has been recorded. In developed countries faba bean is mainly used for animal feeding Endowed with unique ability to trap atmospheric nitrogen in their root nodules in association with rhizobium bacterial and thrive well under harsh and fragile eco-system pulses remained an integral component of subsistence farming system of dry land region since dawn of agriculture. Its rich source of protein minerals vitamins and crude fbre pulses are considered as health food. Faba bean genotypes have a large genetic variability for starch protein and fbre content Singh et al. 2013a. About 50 of water- insoluble cell walls are contained in seed coats. Their content is primarily determind by seed size and by the zero-tannin genes. Protein content usually has high heritability values and can be increased by breeding if needed. Faba bean storage proteins are rich in lysine and ARTICLE INFO Received on : 14.09.2015 Accepted on : 12.11.2015 Published online : 07.12.2015

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258 Singh et al Journal of AgriSearch Vol.2 No.4 low in sulphur amino acids Methionine and Cystine Singh et al. 2014. In the spontaneous genetic variability the amino acid content is primarily determined by total protein content and any modifcation by breeding of individual amino acid content is no treaty available. The seeds of faba bean contain antinutritional compounds/ factors that reduce their nutritional value. Faba bean contains small amounts of several anti-nutritional factors however their effects are less acute. The protease inhibitors remain in much lower 2 concentrations is compare is to soybeans. Roasted seeds are eaten like peanuts in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present investigation entitled Studies on genetic variability correlation path and diversity analysis in Faba bean Vicia faba L. was carried out during Rabi 2012-13 at the Student’s Instructional Farm of Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology Narendra Nagar Kumarganj Faizabad U.P . India. EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS The experimental materials for the present investigation consisted of 26 germplasm lines of faba bean and one check variety namely Vikrant. The material comprising of indigenous as well as exotic germplasm lines exhibiting wide spectrum of variation for various agronomic and morphological characters. This experiment was conducted in Augmented design Federer 1956. Each plot consisted of 4 rows 4 m length with the inter and intra row spacing of 45 cm and 15 cm. All recommended culture practices were adopted to raise a good crop. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Analysis of variance Table 1 due to treatment showed high significant for majority of characters except 100- seed weight and protein content for which it was signifcant. Coeffcient of Variation The phenotypic and genotypic coeffcient of variation for all the eleven characters showed Table 2. In general the magnitude of phenotypic coeffcient of variation was higher than genotypic coeffcient of variation for all the characters Spark 1973. The characters which exhibited moderate estimates 10 to 20 of phenotypic coeffcient of variation PCV and genotypic coeffcient of variation GCV were seed yield per plant number of pods per plant biological yield per plant and number of branches per plant. The remaining characters viz. days to 50 fowering days to maturity plant height number of seeds per pod 100 seed weight and protein content showed low estimates 10 of PCV and GCV . Heritability and Genetic Advance Heritability and genetic advance in per cent of mean were showed Table 2 High estimates of broad sense heritability 75 were recorded for plant height 88.6 number of pods per plant 82.1 and days to maturity 80.6. The moderate estimates of heritability 50-75 were observed for biological yield per plant 71.7 seed yield per plant 58.3 days to 50 fowering 57.3 and harvest index 57.0 while the low estimates of broad sense heritability were shown by number of seeds per pod 49.3 number of branches per plant 42.5 protein content 24.8 and 100 seed weight 21.0. The high estimates of genetic advance in per cent of mean 20 were recorded for number of pods per plant 29.49 harvest index 27.13 biological yield per plant 24.59 and seed yield per plant 23.62. Number of branches per plant 13.64 showed moderate estimate for genetic advance in per cent of mean while the number of seeds per pod 7.91 plant height 6.56 days to 50 fowering 4.17 days to maturity 3.19 protein content 2.03 and 100 seed weight 1.30 showed low estimate of 75 high genetic advance in per cent of mean. Table1: Analysis of variance for eleven characters in Faba bean Characters Source of variation Replication Treatments Error Degree of freedom 2 25 50 Days to 50 fowering 0.01 8.78 1.75 Days to maturity 0.81 15.52 1.15 Plant height cm 0.69 36.79 1.51 No. of branches / plant 0.07 0.83 0.26 No. of seeds / pod 0.03 0.12 0.02 No. of pods / plant 2.87 126.02 8.53 100-seed weight g 0.09 0.83 0.46 Biological yield / plant g 16.19 367.44 42.69 Harvest index 36.65 54.72 10.98 Protein content 0.24 1.55 0.78 Seed yield / plant g 11.80 21.30 4.10 indicate signifcant at 5 and 1 probability level

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Journal of AgriSearch Vol.2 No. 4 Yield and quality contributors in faba bean 259 CORRELATION COEffICIENT : The estimates of phenotypic correlation coeffcients among different characters of faba bean phenotypic correlations presented in the Table 3 seed yield per plant showed highly signifcant and positive correlation with harvest index 0.69 while positive correlation with number of seeds/pod 0.217 seed yield/plant showed highly signifcant and negative correlation with plant height -0.358 and negative correlation with days to maturity -0.215 Singh and Bhatt 2012a Days to 50 flowering exhibited highly significant and positive correlation with only plant height 0.336 and positive correlation with Biological yield per plant 0.235. Days to maturity showed negative and highly signifcant correlation with harvest index -0.33 and negative correlation with no. of pods/plant -0.267 followed Table 2: Estimates of coeffcient of variation h 2 broad sense and genetic advance in per cent of mean Characters Range Mean Coeffcient of variation Heritability in broad sense Genetic advance in per cent of mean PCV GCV Days to 50 fowering 55.00 – 60.33 57.12 3.54 2.67 57.3 4.18 Days to maturity 121.00 – 130.33 126.53 1.92 1.72 80.6 3.2 Plant height cm 96.01- 107.00 101.26 3.59 3.38 88.6 6.56 No. of branches/plant 3.16 – 5.50 4.29 15.58 10.15 42.5 13.64 No. of seeds/ pod 2.80 – 3.66 3.09 7.79 5.47 49.3 7.92 No. of pods/plant 26.13 – 52.10 39.59 17.44 15.8 82.1 29.5 100-seed weight g 24.34 – 26.22 25.3 3.02 1.38 21 1.31 Biological yield/plant g 59.10 – 100.78 73.78 16.65 14.1 71.7 24.6 Harvest index 12.83 – 30.27 21.89 23.09 17.44 57 27.13 Protein content 23.80 – 26.76 25.51 3.99 1.98 24.8 2.04 Seed yield/plant g 10.92 – 20.84 15.94 19.67 15.02 58.3 23.62 Signifcant at 5 probability level Signifcant at 1 probability level. Table 3: Estimates of phenotypic correlation between different characters in faba bean Character Days to 50 fowering Days to matu- rity Plant height cm No. of branch- es/ plant No. of seeds/ pod No. of pods/ plant 100 seed weight g bio- logical yield/ plant g Harvest index Protein content Seed yield/ plant g Days to 50 fowering 1.00 -0.06 0.33 -0.024 0.178 -0.13 -0.07 0.236 -0.02 0.10 0.11 Days to maturity 1.00 0.08 0.07 -0.24 0.26 -0.004 0.222 -0.33 -0.23 -0.21 Plant height cm 1.00 0.29 -0.01 0.04 0.06 0.059 -0.34 -0.08 -0.36 No. of branches / plant 1.00 -0.26 -0.11 0.17 -0.052 -0.06 -0.01 -0.11 No. of seeds / pod 1.00 -0.21 -0.23 0.19 0.05 0.16 0.21 No. of pods / plant 1.00 -0.06 -0.06 -0.01 -0.07 -0.06 100 seed weight g 1.00 0.003 -0.09 -0.06 -0.12 Biological yield/ plant g 1.00 -0.53 0.27 0.16 Harvest index 1.00 -0.07 0.69 Protein content 1.00 0.18 Seed yield / plant g 1.00

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260 Singh et al Journal of AgriSearch Vol.2 No.4 by no. of seeds/pod -0.249 and protein content -0.229 while among the other characters showed non- signifcant. Biological yield per plant had signifcant and positive correlation 0.263 with days to 50 fowering. The harvest index showed negative and highly signifcant correlation with biological yield per plant -0.54 days to maturity -0.339 and plant height -0.337. The protein content showed signifcant and positive correlation with biological yield per plant 0.278 and signifcant and negative correlation with days to maturity -0.229. The number of seeds per pod exhibited signifcant and negative correlation with number of branches per plant -0.267 and days to maturity -0.249. Number of pods per plant showed positive and signifcant correlations with days to maturity 0.267 and all the characters exhibited non-signifcant. The number of branches per plant recorded highly signifcant and positive correlation with plant height 0.291. Plant height showed highly positive signifcant association with days to 50 per cent fowering 0.336. 100-seed weight showed negative signifcant association with seeds per pod -0.238. Path coeffcient analysis The direct and indirect effects of different characters on seed yield per plant were estimated by path coeffcient analysis Dewey and Lu 1959 using simple correlations in Table 4. The highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant was exhibited by harvest index 1.088 followed by biological yield per plant 0.745 and negative direct effect on seed yield / plant was exhibited by days to 50 fowering -0.032 followed by plant height -0.021 and 100 seed weight -0.0210. The highest negative indirect effect on seed yield /plant was exerted by biological yield / plant -0.587 followed by days to maturity -0.369 plant height -0.367 and 100 seed weight -0.102 via harvest index. The highest positive indirect effect on seed yield / plant was exerted by protein content 0.207 followed by days to 50 fowering 0.175 days to maturity 0.165 and no. of seeds / pod 0.143 while the negative indirect effect was exerted by harvest index -0.402 followed by no. of pods / plant -0.049 and no. of branches / plant -0.038 via biological yield / plant. The remaining estimates of the indirect effects in the present analysis were too low to be considered important. The residual effect observed was 0.3268 which indicates that some of the characters which might contribute to yield have not been included in the study. Genetic divergence Then Mahalanobis D 2 analysis was employed to study genetic diversity was done followed by existing among 26 faba bean entries on the basis of 11 quantitative characters. The pseudo F-test revealed that six clusters arrangement was the most appropriate for grouping the 26 entries. Therefore the 26 entries were grouped into Table 4: Direct and indirect effect of different characters on seed yield per plant in faba bean Character Days to 50 fower - ing Days to ma- turity Plant height cm No. of branches/ plant No. of seeds/ pod No. of pods/ plant 100 seed weight g Bio- logical yield/ plant g Harvest index Protein content Correlation with seed yield Days to 50 fowering -0.0324 -0.0001 -0.0072 -0.0002 0.0007 -0.0010 0.0016 0.1757 -0.0271 0.0066 0.1168 Days to maturity 0.0019 0.0010 -0.0018 0.0007 -0.0010 0.0019 0.0001 0.1658 -0.3692 -0.0145 -0.2151 Plant height cm -0.0109 0.0001 -0.0213 0.0027 0.0000 0.0003 -0.0015 0.0446 -0.3677 -0.0051 -0.3588 No. of branches/ plant 0.0008 0.0001 -0.0062 0.0092 -0.0011 -0.0008 -0.0037 -0.0388 -0.0659 -0.0012 -0.1076 No. of seeds/ pod -0.0058 -0.0002 0.0002 -0.0025 0.0041 -0.0015 0.0050 0.1436 0.0639 0.0104 0.2173 No. of pods/ plant 0.0045 0.0003 -0.0009 -0.0011 -0.0009 0.0071 0.0013 -0.0498 -0.0175 -0.0045 -0.0614 100 seed weight g 0.0024 0.0000 -0.0015 0.0016 -0.0010 -0.0005 -0.0210 0.0026 -0.1027 -0.0042 -0.1242 Biological yield/ plant g -0.0076 0.0002 -0.0013 -0.0005 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.0001 0.7457 -0.5875 0.0176 0.1670 Harvest index 0.0008 -0.0003 0.0072 -0.0006 0.0002 -0.0001 0.0020 -0.4025 1.0884 -0.0050 0.6902 Protein content -0.0034 -0.0002 0.0017 -0.0002 0.0007 -0.0005 0.0014 0.2078 -0.0853 0.0633 0.1853 Residual effect 0.3268 Bold fgures indicate direct effects

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Journal of AgriSearch Vol.2 No. 4 Yield and quality contributors in faba bean 261 six different non overlapping clusters. The distribution of 26 faba bean lines in six clusters is presented in Table 5. The highest number of genotypes appeared in cluster II which contained 13 genotypes followed by cluster I having 9 genotypes. Clusters III cluster IV cluster V and cluster VI were having1 genotypes respectively. Table 5: Clustering pattern of 26 faba bean genotype on the basis of Mahalanobis ’ s D 2 statistic. Cluster Number No. of genotypes Genotypes I 9 HB 187 HB 212 HB 186 HB65 HB 194 HB 193 HB 82 HB 48 HB 40 II 13 NDFB 8 RFB 7 RFB 5 NDFB 11 DFB 101 IC 2011215 HB 195 IC 2011241 DFB 103 DFB 102 HB 39 RFB 6 VIKRANT III 1 HB 122 IV 1 HB184 V 1 NDFB 12 VI 1 HB214 The estimates of average intra and inter cluster distance for the six cluster is presented in Table 6. The highest intra-cluster distance was recorded in cluster II 15.32 followed by cluster I 9.89 while the lowest value was recorded in case of cluster III IV V and VI 0.00. The maximum inter cluster distance was recorded between cluster IV and cluster VI 76.08 followed by cluster II and cluster IV 46.05. The minimum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster III and cluster V 10.20 followed by cluster I and cluster III 15.16. The mean performance of clusters for eleven characters is presented in Table 6. Table 6: Estimates of average intra and inter-cluster distances for the six clusters in faba bean Clusters I II III IV V VI I 9.89 23.44 15.16 23.82 27.19 33.03 II 15.32 28.49 46.05 23.20 31.65 III 0.00 18.67 10.20 34.21 IV 0.00 41.84 76.08 V 0.00 24.08 VI 0.00 Bold fgures indicate intra-cluster D 2 value. The cluster I showed high mean performance for biological yield / plant 76.90 while it exhibited average mean performance for remaining characters Table 7. The cluster II had the genotypes having high mean performance for day to maturity 127.28 plant height 104.22 no. of branches / plant 4.54 and 100 seed weight 25.40 exhibiting and for the low mean performance harvest index 19.99 showed while other character showed average mean performance. The cluster III showed high mean performance for harvest index 29.77 and showed low mean performance for no. of seeds / pod 2.87 and protein content. The other characters showed average mean performance in cluster III. The cluster IV showed high mean performance for no. of pods / plant 51.39 and protein content 25.87 while it showed low mean performance for days to 50 fowering 55.33 plant height 96.02 no. of branches / plant 3.50 100-seed weight 24.57 and biological yield / plant 60.39 and average performance for other characters. The cluster V showed low mean performance for days to maturity 121.00 seed yield Table 7: Cluster means for different characters in Faba bean Cluster no. Days to 50 fowering Days to maturity Plant height cm No. of branches/ plant No. of seeds/ pod No. of pods/ plant 100 -seed weight g Biological yield/ plant g Harvest index Protein content Seed yield/ plant g I 56.52 126.93 97.62 4.07 3.14 38.37 25.35 76.90 22.50 25.54 17.04 II 57.59 127.28 104.22 4.54 3.04 40.51 25.40 74.65 19.99 25.53 14.72 III 55.00 123.33 97.97 4.33 2.87 39.27 25.12 60.64 29.77 25.03 18.09 IV 55.33 127.00 96.02 3.50 2.93 51.30 24.57 60.39 28.25 25.87 18.86 V 56.00 121.00 102.56 4.33 3.10 40.87 25.12 63.68 22.36 25.37 13.99 VI 60.33 121.67 103.00 3.83 3.67 26.13 24.80 71.15 26.36 25.40 18.77 indicates lower higher value

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262 Singh et al Journal of AgriSearch Vol.2 No.4 / plant 13.99 while other characters showed average performance in cluster V . The cluster VI showed high mean performance for days to 50 fowering 60.33 no. of seeds / pod 3.67 and seed yield / plant 18.77 while low mean performance for no. of pods / plant 26.13. The remaining characters showed average mean performance in cluster VI Dubey and Srivastava 2007 Lokere et al. 2007 Dwevedi and Lal 2009 Sial et al. 2010 and Yadav et al. 2010. Contribution of eleven traits of faba bean toward divergence The contribution of eleven characters towards divergence in Table 4 showed the highest contribution by plant height 36.62 followed by no. of pods / plant 22.77 Beale 1969 and Spark 1973. The seed yield / plant 0.31 showed lowest contribution towards divergence. CONCLUSION This investigation confrms that wide ranges of variation for different characters are present in this gene pool consisting 26 germplasm lines. Since comparison of means of germplasm lines using least signifcant differences indicated existence of very high degree of variability for all the characters in the germplasm collection. REfERENCES Abdulla MMF.1979. The origin and evolution of Vicia faba L. Proc. First Mediterranean conf. pp.714-746. Beale EML. 1969. Euclidean cluster analysis. A paper contributed to 37 th session of the International Statistical Institute. Cubero JI. 1974. On evolution Vicia faba L. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 45: 47-51. De Candolle A. 1882. Origin of Cultivated Plants Second eds. Reprint 1967 pp 468.Hafner New York. Dewey DR and Lu KH. 1959. Correlation and path coeffcient analysis of crested wheat grass seed production. Agron. J. 51: 515-8. Dubey K K and Srivastava SBL. 2007. Analysis of genetic divergence for yield determinants in chickpea Cicer arietinum L.. Plant Archives. 7 1:153-5. Dwevedi KK and Lal GM. 2009. Assessment of genetic diversity of cultivated chickpea Cicer arietinum L.. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1 1: 7-8. Federer WT. 1956. Augmented design Hawain planters Record. 55: 191-208. Ladizinsky G.1975. On the origin of the broad bean Vicia faba L. Israel J. Bot.24: 80-88. Lokere YA Patil JV and Chavan UD. 2007. Genetic analysis of yield and quality traits in kabuli chickpea. J. Food Legumes. 20 2: 147-9. Sial P Pradhan B Sarangi D N Bastia DN and Mishra TK. 2010. Genetic divergence in chickpea Cicer arietinum L.. Environment and Ecology 3 7: 1848-51. Singh AK and Bhatt BP . 2012b. Faba bean: unique germplasm explored and identifed. HortFlora Research Spectrum 13: 267-9. Singh AK and Bhatt BP.2012a.Faba Bean Vicia faba L.: A potential leguminous crop of India ISBN 978-93-5067- 773-5. ICAR RC for ER Patna. XIV + 518 p. Singh AK Bharati RC N Chandra Manibhushan and A Pedapati. 2013a. An assessment of faba bean Vicia faba L. current status and future prospect. African Journal of Agricultural Research 850 6634-6641. Singh AK Bhardwaj R and Singh IS. 2014. Assessment of nutritional quality of developed faba bean Vicia faba L. lines. J. of Agrisearch 1 2: 96-10 Singh AK Bhat BP Upadhya A Kumar S Sundaram PK Singh BK.2012b. Improvement of faba bean Vicia faba L. yield and quality through biotechnological approach: A review. African Journal Biotechnology 11 87: 15264-71. Singh AK Bhatt BP Sundaram PK Chndra N Bharati RC and Patel SK. 2012c. Faba bean Vicia faba L. phenology and performance in response to its seed size class and planting depth. Int. J. of Agril. Stat. Sci. 8 1: 97-109. Singh AK Bhatt BP Sundaram PK Gupta AK and Singh Deepak. 2013b. Planting geometry to optimize growth and productivity faba bean Vicia faba L. and soil fertility. J. Environ. Biol. 34 1: 117-122. Spark DN. 1973. Euclidean cluster analysis. Algorithm As. 58. Applied Statistics 22: 126-30. Yadav AK Mishra SB Singh SS and Madhuri Arya. 2010. Character association and genetic divergence study in chickpea Cicer arietinum L.. Environment and Ecology 28 2B: 1276-80. Zohary D. 1977.Comment on the origin of cultivated broad bean Vicia faba L. Israel J. Bot. 26: 39-40. Citation: Singh SK Gautam SC Yadav CB and Nivas R . 2015. Studies on association of yield and quality contributing parameters in Faba bean Vicia faba L.. Journal of AgriSearch 2 4: 257-262

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