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Language Learning with Technology:

Language Learning with Technology Presented by Selina Glynn for CTL3002 Nov 23, 2009

History of Technology and Language Learning:

History of Technology and Language Learning Phonograph, Audio Tape, Telephone Radio, Television Language Laboratories Teaching Machine Overhead projector Computer Software Multimedia Software Internet Web Era

Behaviourist Approach:

Behaviourist Approach B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) expanded on the behaviourist theory with the principles of operant conditioning, i.e. a learning that involved rewards and punishments. Skinner built a rote and drill teaching machine in 1958, which presented programmed instruction and provided feedbacks to students with correct answers. (Clark, D. 1999) Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) PLATO BYKI http://www.byki.com/lists/Japanese/Meeting-and-Greeting-1.html Clark, D. (1999) A Time Capsule of Training and Learning

AudioLingual Approach:

AudioLingual Approach Cerezal Sierra believes that the ‘Audiolingual Method’ focuses on phonological and accurate speech. Grammatical accuracy is less emphasized with this method. (p.116-117) This method has its roots in behaviourism. The procedure emphasizes language habit forming with imitation and repetition. Students’ pronunciation and fluency is achieved by listening to dialogue repeatedly and memorization is encouraged. Simulated Conversations Software: Mango http://www.mangolanguages.com/lesson/view/9 Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR): Dragon Naturally Speaking Spectrograms and Waveform Display: Visi-Pitch Cerezal Sierra, F. (1995) Foreign Language Teaching Methods:Some Issues and New Moves. Universided de Alcalá

Cognitive Approach:

The cognitive approach to communicative language teaching is based on the view that learning a language is an unique psycholinguistic process. ( Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. 2000) Text-reconstruction Software NewReader, Text Tanglers Concordancing Software Monoconc Multimedia Simulation Software Philippe Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed) Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Cognitive Approach

Sociocognitive Approach:

Sociocognitive Approach Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory Zone of proxiamal development Computer-Mediated Communication Synchronous tools: Daedalus Interchange writing programs, synchronous chatting (ICQ, MSN) Asynchronous tools: E-mail, conferencing systems, ListServs, Newsgroups Computer-Assisted Discussions Blackboard WebCT Vygotsky, L. 1978 Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. (Chapter 6: Interaction between learning and development, pp. 79-91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Constructivist Learning:

Constructivist Learning The term refers to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves---each learner individually (and socially) constructs meaning---as he or she learns. Computer Mediated Distance Education (CMDE) English for All http://www.myefa.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=welcome Learner Web http://www.screencast.com/users/mlm504/folders/Jing/media/789b0a62-ccdd-472f-bffd-477101e1a815 CECA. (1991) Constructivist Learning Theory. The Museum and the Needs of People. CECA Conference. Oct 1991. Jersusalam. Isreal.

Natural Approach:

Natural Approach Acquisition … refers to the subconscious absorption of general principles of grammar through real experience of communication using L2. (Terrel, D.1977. p.325) Rosestta Stone http://www.rosettastone.com/personal/demo Terrel, D. (1977) A Natural Approach to Second LanguageAcquisition and LearningTracy. The Modern Language Journal. Vol. 61. No. 7, 1977. pp. 325-337

Task Based Approach:

Task Based Approach The task-based model, emphasizes the organization of tasks to facilitate the learners’ participation in tasks which focus on rules and conventions of the language system, communication, problem solving activities, and situational tasks. ( Cerezal-Sierra, F. 1995. p.127) Webquest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4rel5qOPvU http://tarek169.tripod.com/yt/ Cerezal-Sierra, F. (1995) Foreign Language Teaching Methods: Some Issues and New Moves.Universided de Alcalá, 1995

Current Technologies with Language Learning:

Current Technologies with Language Learning Blogs Podcasts Wikis http://innovations.oise.utoronto.ca/edtech/index.php/Home Internet Games http://languageplaytown.languageplayhouse.com/service/displayHomePageExperience.kickAction?page=Homepage&as=32486 Facebook, YouTube Virtual World http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1IRkqbUoXY

Communicative CALL:

Communicative CALL Underwood believes the Computer Assisted Language Learning technologies should base on 13 communicative language acquisition principles below: (p.52-54) Promote acquisition practice Develop implicit grammar rules Encourage original language utterances Avoid judging and evaluation of structural accuracy Provide hints instead of pointing out errors No rewards for success No cute patronizing comments Use target language exclusively Be flexible Allow students to explore the subject matter Create a natural language learning environment Don’t function as a book Fun Underwood, J. H. (1984). Linguistics, computers, and the language teacher : A communicative approach. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers.

Benefits from Learning Writing with Technologies:

Benefits from Learning Writing with Technologies provide motivation for students to write enhance students’ sense of audience teach students the importance of revision reduce stress in writing in target language, and cultivate positive attitudes towards writing. CHOI, J. (2008)The Role of Online Collaboration in Promoting ESL Writing. English Language Teaching . Vol. 1. No. 1. June 2008. Canada Centre of Science and Education. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/viewFile/508/490 .

Computer-Assisted Discussion Benefits :

Computer-Assisted Discussion Benefits More democratic Encourages equal participation More fully collaborative language learning Encourage student to notice and build on other students’ ideas More planning time Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed) Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (p.8-9)

Other Benefits with Computer Assisted Language Learning:

Other Benefits with Computer Assisted Language Learning Language laboratories audio and later multimedia lessons provide drills on oral and visual aspects of language communication and vocabulary learning. (Salaberry, R. 2000. p.44, 46) CAI (Computer Assisted Instructions) can provide assessment, monitoring, recording, analysis of student language performance (p.44) Electronic dictionaries could provide a full range of synonyms, grammatical and stylistic information efficiently. (p.45) Speech generating capabilities of computer makes electronic language tutoring possible (p.46) Salaberry, M. (2001) The Use of Technology for Second Language Learning and Teaching: A Retrospective. The Modern Langauage Journal, 85, I, 2001.

Criticisms of Technologies in Language Education:

Criticisms of Technologies in Language Education Randall Davis argues that one of the issues with using technology in language teaching is that language education is being taken over by software developers, hardware vendors and technicians. (p.2 ) High Cost of Computer Programs Dragon Naturally Speaking Lack of Technical Support Negative Attitudes from teachers Davis, R. (2006) Utopia or Chaos? The Impact of Technology on Language Teaching. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. XII. No.11. Nov 2006.

Open Courseware:

Open Courseware 2001 MIT initiated the idea of “Open Courseware” University course material include: syllabi, lecture, notes, assignments and exams. Open source model: free for download and modify 2006, 90 universities around the world participated. 2008, 6200 courses were developed. Language courses: English, German, French, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish are offered. Many linguistics and language studies courses are also offered

Electronic Literacy:

Electronic Literacy Theorist like Kern believed that language teaching is less about using computers as a tool to learn languages, but rather more about teaching language to help people to use computers more effectively. (Kern, R., 2006, p.197-198) Warschauer points out that teaching people how to communicate using technologies (such as email, online discussion forums, conferences, chats, publishing and presentations) are important forms of communication in and of themselves in the field of modern language learning. (Warschauer, M. & Meskill, C., 2000, p.11) Kern, R. (2006). Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages. TESOL Quarterly. Vol. 40. No.1. March 2006. Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed) Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www.albany.edu/etap/faculty/CarlaMeskill/publication/mark.pdf

References:

References Cerezal Sierra, F. (1995) Foreign Language Teaching Methods:Some Issues and New Moves. Universided de Alcalá CHOI, J. (2008)The Role of Online Collaboration in Promoting ESL Writing. English Language Teaching . Vol. 1. No. 1. June 2008. Canada Centre of Science and Education. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/viewFile/508/490. Clark, D. (1999) A Time Capsule of Training and Learning Davis, R. (2006) Utopia or Chaos? The Impact of Technology on Language Teaching. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. XII. No.11. Nov 2006. Salaberry, R. (1996) A Theoretical Foundation for the Development of Pedagogical Tasks in Computer Mediated Communication. In Hubbard, P. (ed.) Computer Assisted Language Learning. 2009. Vol. 3. p.39-67. CALICO Journal 14(1) (1996) p.5-34. Salaberry, M. (2001) The Use of Technology for Second Language Learning and Teaching: A Retrospective. The Modern Langauage Journal, 85, I, 2001. Vygotsky, L. 1978 Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. (Chapter 6: Interaction between learning and development, pp. 79-91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed) Handbook of Undergraduate Second Language Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Online Resources:

Online Resources BIKI http://www.byki.com/lists/Japanese/Meeting-and-Greeting-1.html Mango http://www.mangolanguages.com/lesson/view/9 English for All http://www.myefa.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=welcome Learner Web http://www.screencast.com/users/mlm504/folders/Jing/media/789b0a62-ccdd-472f-bffd-477101e1a815 Rosestta Stone http://www.rosettastone.com/personal/demo Webquest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4rel5qOPvU http://tarek169.tripod.com/yt/ Wiki http://innovations.oise.utoronto.ca/edtech/index.php/Home Internet Games http://languageplaytown.languageplayhouse.com/service/displayHomePageExperience.kickAction?page=Homepage&as=32486 Virtual World http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1IRkqbUoXY