Building & it's construction


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WORLD TRADE CENTRE’S The WTC’s were the first skyscraper’s to be built without any masonry, instead they were mainly steel. When construction had finished in 1971 200,000 ton’s of steel had been used in each tower. Construction process’ which would usually have to be done in sequence could be done quickly and at the same time due to the openness of the hollow structure. The inner core of steel was constructed bit by bit, and the perimeter walls and floors were built around it. By the time the building was finished the steel beams in the core were the length of the building. CONSTRUCTION MEHROZ HASAN

Presented to :- Prof.MEENU KALRA:

Idea of the Inner Core Each tower was supported by a structural core extending from its foundation in the bedrock to the roof. This inner core housed all of the elevator’s and stairwells as well as having a flooring system structurally independent of the outer walls. This entire core structure was 100% steel framed and was made to reduce weight and increase strength. The perimeter walls and the inner core were supported by cross-braces running horizontally all of the way up the buildings. Because of the WTC’s immense height, the steel framed core increased the structures strength, something which would prove to be important.

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Destruction On September 11, 2001 two airliners, hijacked by Al Qaeda members were intentionally flown into the World Trade Centres. Within 2 hours of being hit, both towers had collapsed. The manner in which they did however has been hotly debated since. The towers ‘pancaked’ which means the stories falling above caused the ones below to collapse, making the building fall straight down. There remains some doubt regarding this story. Many people believe that the steel inside should have held it up and even if it did collapse that it shouldn’t have pancaked or fallen at the speed it did. Post-9/11 reports have confirmed that the WTC’s were certainly strong enough to withstand the plane crash and that a internal fires wouldn’t have damaged or weakened the structure enough to destroy it.

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The Burj Khalifa is a skyscraper in Dubai and is the tallest man made building in the world standing at an impressive 828m. Construction began on 21 September 2004, the exterior of the building was finished on 1 October 2009. The building finished and opened on the 4th of January 2010. It took overall 6 years to be finished!!

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The design team led by Will Baker (chief structural engineer) and Adrian Smith (chief Architect) created the superstructure with the core in a Y shaped formation creating a much more stable building.

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Foundation The superstructure is supported by a large reinforced concrete mat, which is in turn supported by bored reinforced concrete piles. The design was based on extensive geotechnical and seismic studies. The mat is 3.7 meters thick, and was constructed in four separate pours totaling 12,500 cubic meters of concrete.


Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa.  This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability.  The structural consists of high performance concrete wall. Each of the wings buttress the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub.  Central core provides the torsional resistance of the structure, similar to a closed pipe or axle.  . 

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Corridor Corridor walls extend from the central core to near the end of each wing, terminating in thickened hammer head walls. These corridor walls and hammerhead walls behave similar to the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the wind shears and moments.  Perimeter columns and flat plate floor construction complete the system.  At mechanical floors, outrigger walls are provided to link the perimeter columns to the interior wall system, allowing the perimeter columns to participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure; Lokesh sharma

Structural System:

Exterior Cladding The exterior cladding is comprised of reflective glazing with aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels and stainless steel vertical tubular fins. Close to 26,000 glass panels, each individually hand-cut, were used in the exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa. Over 300 cladding specialists from China were brought in for the cladding work on the tower. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer heat, and to further ensure its integrity, a World War II airplane engine was used for dynamic wind and water testing. The curtain wall of Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football (soccer) fields or 25 American football fields.


Spire  The crowning touch of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. In addition to securing Burj Khalifa's place as the world's tallest structure, the spire is integral to the overall design, creating a sense of completion for the landmark. The spire also houses communications equipment.

Exterior Cladding:


Spire :

The Taipei 101 skyscraper is found in Taiwan. It has an impressive height of 508.2m (1670.6ft). It was constructed from 1999 – 2004 It has 101 stories above the ground and 5 underground The Taipei 101 includes: office, communication, conference room, library, observation, restaurant, retail and a fitness centre.

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Structure The T aipei 101 is designed to hold up against typhoon winds and earthquake tremors that are common in this area of Asia. Taipei 101 is flexible in strong winds enough to prevent large sideways movement. Flexibility prevents structural damage while resistance ensures comfort for the occupants and protection of glass.

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The Taipei 101 has the world’s largest passive tuned mass wind and earthquake damper, it weighs 660 metric tons with a diameter of 5.5 meters, suspended from Level 92 to Level 88.     It   helps the building to ensure stability of the tower and comfort for the occupiers.

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Design The design achieves both strength and flexibility for the tower through the use of high-performance steel construction. Thirty-six columns supporting, including eight "mega-columns" packed with 10,000-psi concrete . Every eight floors, outrigger trusses connect the columns in the building's core to those on the exterior . The Tower is built on 380 concrete piles, sunk 80 meters into the ground. MOHD.WAQUAR HASAN

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Massive Steel Outrigger Trusses span between the columns on every eight floors. The structure is reinforced by a Moment Frame System linking the columns on all floors. 36 columns provide vertical support, including eight mega columns around the perimeter. The world’s largest passive tuned mass wind damper, suspended from level 92 down to level 88, helps to ensure stability and comfort.

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