Application of GIS


Presentation Description

No description available.


Presentation Transcript



Introduction to GIS:

Introduction to GIS What is GIS ? An Information System that is used to input, store , retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data , in order to support decision making for planning and management of land use, natural resources, environment, transportation, urban facilities, and other administrative records

Components of GIS:

Components of GIS Key components of GIS are: Computer system, geospatial data, and users Sources of geospatial data are: Digitized maps, aerial photographs, satellite images, statistical tables, and other related documents Computer System Geospatial Data Users Figure: Key components of GIS

Classification of Geospatial Data:

Classification of Geospatial Data Graphical data (called geometric data) Attributes (called thematic data) Figure: Concept of Geospatial Data Real World Vector Raster Form Spatial Objects Attributes in Tables Pixels in Raster Points Lines Areas Data Model

Typical GIS tasks:

Typical GIS tasks GIS Gather information Analyze information Manage information Share information

Data gathering:

Data gathering GIS Geotechnics Base Data Civils Utilities General Information

Project data flows:

Project data flows GIS Rail Engineering Geotechnical Engineering Utility Engineering Bridge Engineering Environmental teams Highway Engineering Noise Air Quality Ecology Primary data flows Secondary data flows On an example rail project...

Land use analysis:

Land use analysis Urban areas can be extremely complex Lots of constraints Parks Churches Prison Healthcare facilities

Route analysis:

Route analysis Terrain data Faults Land use data Engineering constraints: Minimum curve radii Maximum gradient Keep costs down!

Property counts:

Property counts Output from acoustic model Noise impact (L n ) from road Output from air quality model Areas with NO 2 levels above threshold Level Properties People Affected 50-55 dB 420 917 55-60 dB 265 606 60-65 dB 317 715 65-70 dB 232 569 >= 70 dB 114 222 Level Properties People Affected < 40 PPM 823 1782 >= 40 PPM 525 1247

Environmental modeling:

Environmental modeling Noise mapping Air quality modeling Ecology assessments Odor modeling

What is GIS-T?:

What is GIS-T? Geographic information systems for transportation (GIS-T) are interconnected hardware, software, data, people, organizations, and institutional arrangements for collecting, storing, analyzing, and communicating particular types of information about the Earth. GIS-T can be viewed as the product of the interaction between improved concepts of both geographic information system (GIS) and transportation information system (TIS) “ Vonderhoe et al., 1993”

Transportation GIS: Models and Applications:

Transportation GIS: Models and Applications Overview- GIS in transportation Modeling transportation Software ArcGIS Data and Extensions Lab

Uses of GIS in Transportation:

Uses of GIS in Transportation Inventory of roads, signage and other Intelligent Transportation systems/Traffic Management Routing and Delivery Fleet Management Public Transportation Incident Management/Emergency Response 113


Inventory Roads: most important Attributes: One-ways, speed limits, routes, etc. Signage Traffic Lights: timing Parking

Intelligent Transportation Systems:

Intelligent Transportation Systems Uses computer and telecommunication technologies Combination of data, maps, in-vehicle and road monitoring


Routing Based upon Addressing- Geocoding Batch or one-off (Navigation Software) Efficiency 113

PowerPoint Presentation:

Selection of Aerial photography company type of camera How Line Mapping Starts 115

Aerial Photography Activity:

Aerial Photography Activity

PowerPoint Presentation:

Agree on flight runs and the whole plan to cover the area How Mapping Starts Flight Run 1 Flight Run 2

Aerial Photography Concept:

Aerial Photography Concept

PowerPoint Presentation:

TF-004 TF-005 TF-009 TF-008 TF-006 TF-007 TF-003 TF-002 TF-001 Flight Run 1 Flight Run 2 TF-001 Let’s get going

PowerPoint Presentation:

TF-004 TF-005 TF-009 TF-008 TF-006 TF-007 TF-003 TF-002 TF-001 TF-001 Farhaan Street Masood Road Masood Dist Area Masood District Area The Image The Line Map

This is end of beginning – what next?:

The Image and its Line Map TF-001 Masood Dist Area Farhaan Street Masood Road Masood Dist Area This is end of beginning – what next?

PowerPoint Presentation:





HOW GIS HELPS… The military command, which acquires the information fast and uses it fast will be at advantageous position in a future war. GIS technology helps armed forces as information is readily available to various levels of officers involved in operations. Spy satellites constantly acquire the high-resolution satellite data in peacetime to monitor the development in acquisition of modern warfare gadgets by the enemy forces

Uses of GIS in Military….:

Uses of GIS in Military…. 1.Unit/Troop Tracking Systems (GPS):- The units, organizations and even troops are tracked via GPS embedded equipment on the different levels of maps. 2.Operations systems:- The requirement for military operations is that detailed map and chart information be available. These maps and charts must be current, contain standard navigation and position information


Cont.… 3.Terrain Analysis :- The knowledge of terrain, vegetation, and land cover is crucial to military intelligence because it affects the tanks, military vehicles, and troops. 4. Air Strikes:- GIS is also used to help determine the best place for air strikes and bombings.  It provides pilots with extremely precise height information, and can also be layered with data about terrain, meteorological conditions, proximity of a target area to civilian populations, and potential counter attack sites


Cont.… Selection of Sites for Helipads. Identification of Tactically Important Roads. Preparation of Vehicle Mobility Maps C4I2= Command, Control, Communication, Coordination, Information and Interoperability.

What GIS can do for small units::

What GIS can do for small units: Command and control For company commanders, platoon and squad leaders Track movements and status of each person and unit Transmit messages, images, maps, to individuals Navigation View 2D or 3D maps of current location in multiple views GPS to direct toward waypoints Soldier identification and target discrimination Friendly troops Enemy troops Civilians

GIS in missile guidance systems….:

GIS in missile guidance systems…. 1.GOT(Go_Onto_Target) 2.GOLIS(Go_Onto_Location_in_Space) ->The GOT missiles can hit a moving as well as fixed targets. ->While a GOLIS can hit only a stationary targets only. ->GIS is used to find the exact location of the targets(both fixed and moving)


.. Target Launch INS Navigation Waypoint fix Stored map Missile track Multiple raster maps stored (all with same dimensions) Maps of areas that is to be hit GIS helps to give exact path. Tomahawk Cruise Missile Track



authorStream Live Help