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Nicaragua: to 1956:

Nicaragua: to 1956 Why the Gould Article? Somoza Dynasty Sandino/Sandinistas

Dreams of a Canal & Early Intervention:

Dreams of a Canal & Early Intervention 19 th Century Canal Attempts Panama Eventually Site of Canal 1912-1933 US Occupation Came during Liberal/Conservative Wars Nicaraguan President Asks for Intervention

Augusto César Sandino:

Augusto César Sandino Similar to Martí ? Fled to Guatemala; then Mexico in 1921 after dispute w/Conservative official Influenced by Mexican Revolution Returns to Nicaragua in 1926 during another outbreak of Liberal/Conservative Violence Becomes leader of a Liberal Faction Becomes famous for hit-and-run tactics 1927 begins attacks on the “Colossus of the North” Attacks coffee plantations & gold mines Engages in a few battles with Marines Develops a Pan-Latin American idea of challenging the US/Europe US Congress grows tired of chasing Sandino in the hills and jungles:  if American soldiers intended to "stamp out banditry, let's send them to Chicago to stamp it out there . . . I wouldn't sacrifice . . . one American boy for all the damn Nicaraguans .“ US Withdraws in 1933

Somoza Clan: Rise to Power:

Somoza Clan: Rise to Power US Forces Train Guardia Nacional ~3,000 Armed Men (mix of military and police powers) Anastasio “ Tacho ” Somoza García becomes head 1933 lures Sandino to Peace Talks—Assassinated Uses power of the Guardia Nacional to further his political power Amends Constitution to give President total control Used government positions and contracts to enrich family and friends During WWII expropriates German lands Sells it to himself; becomes largest landowner

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