El Salvador, 1979-1992 with sound

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El Salvador, 1979-1992:

El Salvador, 1979-1992 Three phases for Rebels: Formation & Major Rebel Offensive Hold Territory, Negotiate, Rally Support Large Offensive –Highlight Power of FMLN Three Phases for Government Troops Brutalize countryside, legitimize ARENA and death squads Feign Attempts at negotiation, appeal for military support Negotiate a peace


1970s Economic Crisis Unemployment 20% Underemployment 40% 1975: Hosts Miss Universe, spends $30 million Social Crisis Malnutrition (2 nd lowest caloric intake in Hemisphere) 41% were landless peasants (compared with 11% in 1950) Political Crises 1972 Election Fraud Unified Opposition (Christian Democratic Party, MNR, UDN (Communists)) Cadidate Jose Napoleaon Durate , won by 72,000 votes Arrested, tortured, exiled 1977 Election More vote rigging Protests end in bloodshed Democratic reform seen as blocked by most 10+ years of attempts at political change

Responses :

Responses COMADRES: Mothers of the Disappeared Upwell of support for guerrilla groups Rebel groups gain followers and supporters Small bands, generate funds through kidnapping and ransom Robbed banks Seized radio stations Targeted assassinations Military and security forces conduct “sweeps” of suspected rebels and sympathizers Dozens killed Dozens “Disappeared” Rebels retaliate Attach barracks, police buildings, etc. Army conduct more sweeps Some members of the Church position themselves between poor and military Strong protectors of poor murdered “Be a patriot! Kill a priest!”

1980-1992: Civil War:

1980-1992: Civil War “If I am killed, I shall rise again in the struggle of the Salvadoran people.” Oscar Romero Romero’s death galvanizes opposition, form broad political movement (FMLN) FMLN successes against military Weapons and Ammo 1983, control territory with 200,000 people Set up self-governing system ( Poder Popular Local ) Durate Returns (1984-1989) Election of ARENA canidate

US Influence in Civil War:

US Influence in Civil War Not another Nicaragua! Election of Reagan Cold War Stance Democratic Congress Pushed for “fair” elections in 1982 Boycotted by opposition—why? In 1981 entire leadership of FDR assassinated Months before, Government hit lists $2.7 billion (~$9 billion today) Military Aid Rapid Deployment Battalions Training & Weapons Supported Economic Austerity Currency devalued by 100% Increase in fuel prices New Taxes

1989: Turning Point:

1989: Turning Point Nov. 1989 FMLN Major Offensive Strikes San Salvador & entire country Takes up positions in poor areas Assault Sheraton Hotel Green Berets Takes military and government by surprise Universidad Centroamericana (UCA) Massacre 6 Jesuits 2 Maids ~2 more years of negotiation & fighting

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