guatemala 3 w sound1

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Guatemala, 1944-1954 “10 Years of Spring” Up to 1944 Foreign Investment & Large Land Owners Coffee (Local Elites) Banana (United Fruit) Big Investments in Guatemala 1944, “October Revolution” Juan Averalo and New Constitution Possible Land Reform Spiritual Socialism—Alarmed Elites Gave Political Support to Groups working to end Dictatorships in Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Venezuela New Labor Laws CIA “Destabilizing Force” 1950 Jacobo Arbenz Elected (1 st Smooth Election) Military Officer President Decree 900 (Signed 1952) Redistributed unused lands of sizes greater than 223 acres to local peasants Land Owners Given Government Bonds in Compensation 1953: 234,000 acres of uncultivated land from UFC UFC owned 550,000 acres in Guatemala, 42% of the nation’s (arable) land Company was compensated with $627,572 in bonds for the expropriation of their holdings US State Department, on behalf of the United Fruit Company, claimed to Guatemala that the land was worth $15,854,849

Counter Revolution, 1954-1996:

Counter Revolution, 1954-1996 Arbenz overthrown and laws overturned 8000 summarily executed Beginnings of armed rebellion in countryside, gained intensity in the 1970s as government repression increased 1981, Guerrillas mount increasingly successful attacks 1981—scorched Earth policies Burn “Model Villages” Rios Montt, conscripted indigenous men Raids into countryside, attacks on villages 56% of all women in the countryside were widows (38% in urban) Slaughter of indigenous peoples. By 1996, 200,000 dead; 50,000 disappeared

Guatemalan Peace Process: 1986-1996:

Guatemalan Peace Process: 1986-1996 Early 1980s Massive Corruption Rising Foreign Awareness Creating New Constitution 1986: New Government Elected—Little Real Power 1988 & 1989: Semi-Successful Coups Against Government—Return of Heavy Repression Govt had to give into 23/25 Demands Late 1980s: Poor Economic Performance & High Levels of Poverty 1989: 67% Living in Extreme Poverty 1990: New Elections, Jorge Serrano Elected; Leaves in '93 After Failed Attempt to Re-Make Government by an 'autogolpe' Anti-Corruption Gains Momentum through Peace Commissioner 1994-96: Peace Agreements Between Military/Government and Rebels Human Rights,, Resettlement, Historical Inquiry, Indigenous Rights, Agrarian Reform

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