Spanish Grammar Book

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Mi Libro Grammatica:

Mi Libro Grammatica

Table of Contents:

Preterite vs Imperfect Uses of Por y Para Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Ud . + Uds . Commands Present Subjunctive Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence Subjunctive with verbs of emotion Doubt, disbelief, and denial Conjunctions Table of Contents

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Preterite is used to describe actions in the past that have a definite beginning and end. Regular Conjugation - ar verbs - ir /- er verbs é amos í imos aste - iste - ó aron ió ieron La Cucaracha Verbs (Conjugated in the Yo Form) Tener - tuve Estar - estuve Ir / ser-fui Poner - puse Poder-pude Traer- traje * Hacer - hice Haber- hube Saber- supe Querer - quise Venir - vine Decir - dije * Ver -vi Dar- di *J verb- ustedes form, drop i and use - eron Snakey Verbs - verbs ending in – aer , - eer , - oír , - oer all change to have the ending of – yeron in the uds . form and y ó In the ud . form -conjugate like an – er verb, with no accents. ir / ser fui fuimos fuiste - fue f ueron Preterite dar ver di vi diste viste dio vio dimos vimos dieron vieron hacer hice hicimos hiciste - hizo hicieron Spock Verbs -car, -gar, - zar C -> qu é G-> gué Z-> c é -Change in yo form only Snake Verbs- Stem change in third person - e->I - o->u

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Imperfect Imperfect is used when describing routine, background, time and dates, age, characteristics, and mental/ physical states in the past. Regular Conjugation - ar verbs - ir /- er verbs aba ábamos ía íamos abas - ías - aba aban ía ían Irregulars ir íba íbamos íbas - íba íban ser era éramos eras - era eran ver veía veíamos veías - veía veían

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Uses of Por y Para Por Para -motion or general location -duration of an action -object of a search -means by which something is done -exchange or substitution -unit of measure -when given a general time -destination -deadline or specific time in future -purpose/goal + infinitive (in order to) -purpose + noun/verb (for, used for) -the recipient of something -comparisons/opinions -employment -Me gusta estudiar por la noche . - Viajo a la playa por un carro . - Compro una cartera para mi hermano . - Trabajo para tu familia . Ejemplos

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Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Short Form mi(s) nuestro (a/ os /as) tu (s) - su (s) su (s) Long Form mío (a/ os /as) nuestro (a/ os /as) tuyo (a/ os /as) - suyo (a/ os /as) suyo (a/ os /as) - Busco para tus pantalones . - Busco para los pantalones tuyos . Possessive Adjectives can be written in short form or long form. To write a possessive pronoun, take the long form of the adjective and add an article based on the number and gender of the noun. Estoy buscando para los pantalones tuy os . (I am looking for your pants.) Estoy buscando para los tuy os . (I am looking for yours.) ¿ Dondé está la computadora suya ? ¿ Dondé está la suya ?

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Tú - simply drop the ‘s’ Los irregulares - di, haz , ve , pon , sal , sé , ten, ven Ud ./ Uds . –put it in ‘ yo ’ form and change to opposite vowel Los irregulares - TVDISHES T ú - put it in ‘ yo ’ form and change to oposite vowel, add an ‘s’. Los irregulares - TVDISHES Ud ./ Uds .-same as above Los irregulares - TVDISHES DOP+IOP+ ‘se’ can attach to an affirmative DOP+IOP+ ‘se’ must go before the negative command Ud . + Uds . Commands

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Expresses doubt, desires, uncertainty, and things contrary to reality Uses the same conjugation as formal commands. Irregulares : TVDISHES- tener , ver , dar , ir , ser , hacer / haber , estar , saber In order to use the subjunctive, you must have: special verbs two clause two different subjects “ que ”. Present Subjunctive

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Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence Sugerir (e- ie ) To suggest Importar - to be important; to matter Insistir (en)- to insist (on) Mandar - to order Recomendar (e- ie )- to recommend Prohibir - to prohibit Rogar (o- ue )- to beg, to plead Aconsejar - to advise

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Subjunctive w/ Verbs of Emotion When the main clause expresses an e motion, use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause. Common Expressions of Emotion Alegrarse (de) Tener miedo (de) Esperar Es extraño Gustar Es una lástima Molestar Es rídiculo Sentir ( e:ie ) Es triste Sorprender Ojála ( que )* Temer Es terrible *Always followed by the subjunctive; use of “ que ” is optional Use the infintive after an expression of emotion when there is no change in subject. -Me molesta ver el bosque tropical en peligro . -Me alegro de que algunas fábricas se preocupan por el medio ambiente .

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Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial Use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause when the main clause expresses doubt, disbelief, or denial. Expression of doubt, disbelief, and denial Dudar No es seguro Negar ( e:ie ) No es verdad No creer Es imposible No estar seguro /a (de) Es improbable No es cierto (No ) es posible * (No) es probable* * Es probable and es posible both indicate an amount of uncertainty so they call for the subjunctive in the subordinate clause. Es probable que contaminemos el medio ambiente Do not use the subjunctive when the main clause indicates certainty. Use the indicative. Use the infinitive when after an expression of doubt, disbelief and denail when there is no change of subject. Quizás and tal vez are usually followed by the subjunctive because they imply doubt.

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Conjunctions Conjunctions that require the subjunctive A menos que En caso (de) que Antes (de) que * Para que * Con tal (de) que Sin que * *Use the infinitive after antes de, para, and sin when there is no change in subject. Te llamamos antes de que salgas la casa -We will call you before you leave the house. Te llamamos antes de salir la casa. -We will call you before we leave the house. Conjunctions that could use the subjunctive or indicative. Cuando Hasta que Después (de) que Tan pronto como En cuanto Use the subjunctive if the main clause implies that something will happen in the future or a command. Use indicative if it implies the past or habits.