river embankment making and flood protection

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Embankment failure and riverbank erosion are common problem in Odisha. Almost every year earthen embankments and riverbanks are facing problems like erosion, breaching or retirements. Among many reasons the major causes are considered due to the use of geotechnical unstable materials, improper method of construction, seepage and sliding.

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Satyajit319 Project Report On “Raising widening strengthening with protection to scoured bank of Bedpur-Kabirpur embankment on river Kansabansa right” BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING By Under the esteemed guidance of Prof. ASHISH KUMAR SAMAL DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GANDHI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY GUNUPUR-765022 2016-17

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Satyajit319 DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project entitled “Raising widening strengthening with protection to scoured bank of Bedpur-Kabirpur embankment on river Kansabansa” submitted for the B.Tech Degree is my original work and the project has not formed the basis for the award of any degree associate ship fellow ship or any other similar titles. Signature of the student Place: Gunupur Date: 31/10/2016

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Satyajit319 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled “Raising widening strengthening with protection to scoured bank of Bedpur-Kabirpur embankment on river Kansabansa” is the bonafide work carried out by SATYAJIT BEHERA student of GANDHI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY during the year 2016-17 in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of BACHELOR IN TECHNOLOGY in CIVIL ENGINEERING. MR. ASHISH KUMAR SAMAL Professor HOD CE

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Satyajit319 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a great pleasure and privilege to express my profound sense of gratitude to our esteemed guide Mr. Ashish Kumar Samal Prof HOD CE who helped coordinated using completion of the project I also sincerely thanks to all the teachers for their suggestions motivation and support during the project work and keen personal interest throughout the progress of my project work. I express my thanks to all my friends my family for their timely suggestions and encouragements. At last but not least I would also thank GOD for his divine blessings on me that I could successfully and safely complete this project. SATYAJIT BEHERA

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Satyajit319 ABSTRACT Embankment failure and riverbank erosion are common problem in Odisha. Almost every year earthen embankments and riverbanks are facing problems like erosion breaching or retirements. Among many reasons the major causes are considered due to the use of geotechnical unstable materials improper method of construction seepage and sliding.

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Satyajit319 Content 1. Aim of the project 2. Introduction 3. Environmental impacts and protective measures 4. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts 5. Embankment available under Salandi canal division 6. Details about the Bedpur-Kabirpur embankment on river Kansabansa project 7. Summary 8. Reference

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Satyajit319 AIM OF THE PROJECT The overall aim of the project is explicitly deals with how to engage and empower local communities to manage land use in a sustainable way to protect and enhance Kansabansa river.

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Satyajit319 Introduction For constructing a hydraulic structure across a river a water resources engineer must also consider the effect of the structure on the hydraulics of the river and the best ways to train the river such that the structure performs satisfactorily and also there is no significant damage to the riverine environment. For example if a barrage is located within a river then its length may span from end to end of the river width or could be smaller if the waterway is so calculated. In the latter case that is when the length of a barrage is smaller than the width of a river then certain auxiliary structures in the form of embankments have to be constructed as shown in Figure 1 known as River Training Works. At times people residing very close to the flood zones of a river may have to be protected from the river’s fury. This is done by providing embankments along the river sides to prevent the river water from spilling over to the inhabited areas. In order to limit the movement of the bank of a meandering river certain structures are constructed on the riverbank which are called riverbank protection works. Sometimes an embankment like structure called a Groyne or a Spur is constructed at right angles to the riverbank and projected into the river for attracting or deflecting the flow of the river towards or away from the riverbank. This project discusses the layout and design of these River Training and Riverbank Protection Works which can together be termed as aspects of River Engineering. Of course river engineering includes much more like dredging to keep the pathway of ships in a river navigable or techniques of setting up jetties for ships to berth. The term river and canal engineering covers all building works that cause a radical change in the natural water-balance conditions in or along watercourses or in a region affected by new canal building. River engineering embraces all hydraulic engineering work undertaken for the purposes of

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Satyajit319 - river straightening - flood protection - changing the use to which a watercourse is put - improving navigability and - channelizing natural watercourses. Canal engineering covers operations such as the building of - artificial waterways inland waterways and canals - large supply and discharge canals such as relief or irrigation canals - large canals for sea-going vessels e.g. the Panama or Suez Canal and - artificial approaches to inland ports. Though this varies with the size of the river engineering works on rivers are generally multi-purpose i.e. are intended to meet a variety of requirements such as navigation power generation irrigation and water supply flood protection and maintenance of or change to existing groundwater levels in river plains. Though canals are likewise built for navigation and power generation they also serve supply and discharge purposes an example of a large supply canal is the Bahr el Youssef canal supplying the Fayum oasis in Egypt. River and canal engineering can thus perform both productive and protective functions. In canals the water level is usually held constant or is varied only within specific preset limits. This being the case canals are with a few exceptions "zones of dormant water" rather than "watercourses". Losses through percolation and evaporation are inevitable and because of this canals often need an artificial "feed" e.g. the Eder dam reservoir in Germany feeds the Mittell and canal. Where in certain stretches the water level in canals is above the natural lay of the land or where the canals run along a slope particularly close attention must be paid to ensuring that the canals are watertight and the ground is secure

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Satyajit319 against shear failure to prevent the risk of flooding. Environmental impacts and protective measures Overview River and canal works have an impact on the whole of the environment. As well as the direct impacts there will also be indirect or secondary impacts outside the area affected by the building operations proper. This will for example be the case with building works in the upper reaches of large rivers which may have direct and/or indirect impacts down to the estuaries of the rivers and out to the landscape regions that are affected by the river via

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Satyajit319 aquifers. Changes in flow velocity for example may under certain circumstances have an adverse effect on the oxygen balance of a watercourse and thus on its self-cleansing action produced by micro-organisms. These micro-organisms are a primary food for a wide variety of flora and fauna and the latter in turn for higher life forms the food chain. River engineering operations Objectives of river engineering operations River engineering operations are generally undertaken for economic reasons and they are subject to highly complex requirements in respect of the impacts being aimed for and those that have to be taken into account. For example changes to wetlands or floodplains caused by river engineering lead to changes in the flora and fauna living in these areas and to the living conditions for different species. Such changes may offer major benefits locally e.g. for utilisation and the human population but they are acceptable only so long as displaced species and flora and fauna will find adequate living conditions in neighbouring regions and a wide diversity of species will be maintained. Hence river and canal engineering operations are normally subject to a conflict of uses and must therefore be planned and executed with due allowance for the widest possible balance of interests. Identical or similar river engineering operations can be carried out for different purposes and for this reason the impact descriptions given below are classified under headings relating to broadly defined engineering operations and works.

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Satyajit319 Impacts from dredging operations Dredging operations momentary or repeated dredging operations to obtain or maintain given depths of water have an impact on the natural environment firstly because of the resulting change in the longitudinal or cross-sectional profile of the river which normally causes a change in its flow regime and secondly as a result of changes in the surroundings of the river if the dredged material is going to be deposited away from the river bed. There may also be changes in the groundwater level if any permanent changes are caused to strata lying at this level. Changes in the flow regime of a river such as an acceleration of discharge in its middle reaches may create a risk of flooding in its lower reaches. If a cut is made into certain soil formations dredging may trigger off erosion phenomena whose action counteracts that of the dredging. Depending on its consistency dredged material pumped out or deposited by the side of the river may causes changes in the flora and fauna and in the natural landforms. Contaminated dredged material which may be caused by pollution in the river water and thus in the sediments being dredged out may in some cases have to be taken to special dumps where care must be taken to protect the groundwater. Improperly dumped dredged material and especially contaminated material may have detrimental impacts in the human sphere via changes to flora and fauna.

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Satyajit319 Transverse dykes and training structures The purpose for which transverse dykes and training structures are intended is normally the artificial creation of given discharge channel cross-sections or a given longitudinal profile with the aim of maintaining certain flow velocities directions of flow and depths of water at low or medium flow. Transverse dykes and training structures have an impact on the natural flow regime of a river in that where there are resulting changes in the groundwater level they create a risk of erosion. They also have an impact on the floodplain region of a river waterlogging or desiccation damage with the respective impacts these have on the flora and fauna natural river-bank areas that would otherwise be diversified generally change for the worse. Generally speaking they are an ideal means of obtaining navigable depths of water and given directions of flow with as few detrimental environmental impacts as possible. The construction of transverse dykes and training structures often has the effect of making other river engineering operations

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Satyajit319 e.g. dredging unnecessary.

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Satyajit319 Revetments Revetment operations are often carried out upstream or downstream of weirs weirs with locks and locks for hydrodynamic reasons as also is bed stabilisation in some cases their purpose being to stop erosion and scouring processes. The revetments are generally composed of dumped stone rip-rap which is laid on geo- textiles as a bedding to prevent undermining and under washing.

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Satyajit319 In special cases they may consist of bituminous coatings or interlocked revetments. It is mainly the impermeable bituminous or interlocked revetments that have an impact on the natural environment in that they partly interrupt the exchange between flowing water and ground water. These impacts can however be classified as slight because the exchange through the bed of the river continues to operate. Where there are major impacts is on the flora and fauna living on the margins of the river banks because they are generally displaced. Heavy bank revetment may for example cause spawning grounds for fish or species of frogs and toads to be lost. A river confined by revetments often has a disagreeable impact on human beings due to its unnatural appearance. The beneficial impacts however such as the reduced risk of bank collapses and erosion promote safe living conditions on the banks.

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Satyajit319 Embankments Embankments are built to provide protection against flooding. Embankments have an impact on the natural environment firstly by preventing the flooding of extensive and possibly settled floodplains and secondly by affecting the regime of the river at times of high water discharge. The absence of flooding of for example agricultural land on a floodplain may sometimes cause major changes in the moisture content of soil and there will be no "fertilizing" action of the kind produced by suspended materials deposited after floods which action may have to be compensated for artificially where necessary. Both the above impacts give rise to further impacts on the flora and fauna of a floodplain. Embanked stretches of a river affect surges of flood discharge in the same way as stretches of a canal and cause accelerated discharge the possibility of bed erosion and a risk of flooding in unprotected areas along the lower reaches of the river. Embankments also act as barriers to the natural surface runoff from the floodplain into the river. On the lower reaches of a river close to the sea where embankments are usually essential to deal with storm tides the land behind the embankment therefore has to be artificially drained. Embankments have a crucial impact on terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna. The change in the water balance for example causes changes in the habitats available to animal life of all kinds and plants. The fast discharge in the embanked channel that occurs at times of flood precipitation will be particularly destructive of spawning and breeding grounds located in areas of dormant water.

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Satyajit319 The adverse impacts of embankments such as high discharge velocities and the possibility of river bed and bank erosion may also have indirect detrimental effects on navigation and fishing. Agriculture in the areas protected by embankments will suffer considerable deprivation due to the above-mentioned change in soil moisture content and to the absence of alluvial loam. Embankments hamper free access to watercourses and need to be scrupulously managed and maintained to prevent any risk of breaches occurring in them. Where in special cases embankments are riveted with stone or bituminous materials to protect them against wash or wave action they also disfigure the landscape. Bottom sills step sills weirs alone or in combination with locks or run-of-river hydroelectric stations Bottom sills step sills and weirs are generally built to improve navigation and exploit water power but they are also built for reasons connected with water management. To control water levels and discharge weirs can be designed to be either fixed or with adjustable spillways or sluices. At the same time weirs are also built in association with locks and/or hydroelectric stations or in association with abstracting structures to divert water into other channels generally for irrigation.

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Satyajit319 Stone pitching Low bottom sills or step sills produce small to medium changes in the flow gradient. All the impacts generated by such structures are proportional to their size and to make things simpler the following description is confined to weirs but the impacts of bottom sills and step sills can be inferred from what is said: Weirs constitute a major interference with the discharge regime of a river and they divide the river into an upstream section and a downstream section which are precisely separated by the structure itself. This causes a break in the transport of bed load and sediment. The division into two combined with the raising of the water level in the upstream section will cause sedimentation to occur in this section in the downstream section the greater tractive force of the water which is free of sediment will increase sediment uptake or in other words there will be pronounced erosion from the river bed and banks.

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Satyajit319 In the upstream section the rise in the water level will cause a change in the groundwater level in the foreshore back to the point where the incoming flow joins the water at the higher level. Because of the rise in the water level embanking of the foreshore will often be necessary to stop flooding at times of flood discharge see "Embankments". Due to the change in flow velocity in the upstream section the rivers self-cleaning action will be seriously affected and this will lead to a deterioration in water quality that will be particularly pronounced during low water periods. River straightening or channelization The straightening of rivers is carried out for a variety of purposes and may be done for reasons of water management or on use- related grounds. The impacts of straightening or channelization vary with the way in which the operation is carried out. A distinction can be made between the following operations: - cutting off a loop of the river while preserving the loop as a cut off arm a body of dormant or flowing water serving to drain off flood water or for other purposes. The operation is performed for the purposes of power generation to increase head and/or to improve navigability. - straightening and shifting the course of the river without preserving the old bed. A water management operation for flood protection purposes or the like. Cutting off as defined above normally breaks down into the following parts: The cut off arm weir structures in the cut off arm and the cut to raise the water level upstream and building of a lock associated

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Satyajit319 with one of the weirs or construction of one of the weirs as part of a hydroelectric generator station. Channelization is generally a hybrid undertaking consisting of river straightening cutting off and lining of the natural bed to create a uniform channel cross-section in the interests of navigability. The impacts of channelization will be dealt with in the section on canal engineering. Cut-offs A cut-off will alter the flow regime of the river. The shortening of the distance flowed produces an increase in the bed gradient and a rise in flow velocity in the cut. Without weirs the cut off arm would dry up. The rise in flow velocity may cause a drop in water level upstream of the cut heavier erosion of the river bed upstream and in the cut and sedimentation downstream. The high water peaks become higher and produce a greater risk of flooding in downstream areas. Groundwater levels will be adversely affected upstream of and in the area where the operation is carried out. In the long term there will be a lowering of the groundwater level. As an example the Jongley canal a cut-off on the White Nile from Malakal to Juba was built a to shorten the length of the journey by boat and b to increase the average daily discharge by 40 x 10 m 3 approx. 460 m 3 /s by draining the marshes south of Malakal.

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Satyajit319 When there are weir structures a weir with or without a lock in the cut and a hydroelectric generator station situated on the cut off arm or vice versa or the cut off arm blocked off underwater and all the structures situated in the cut they produce the impacts described above under "weirs" in the areas upstream and downstream. In the region of the cut the impacts depend on the groundwater conditions in the environs of the location of the structure at the upstream or downstream end of the cut. In the cut off arm there may be changes in water quality if nothing is done to ensure circulation by providing a link with the main watercourse e.g. there may be eutrophication a change in balance in the body of water due to heavy enrichment with nutrients excessive algal growth and severe oxygen deficiency. Cuts without weirs have a pronounced effect on the flora and fauna in and in the environs of the former river bed the cut off arm. Here the change in groundwater levels the channel acts as a drain will certainly have an adverse effect on the flora and the old riparian vegetation whose growth is controlled by areas of moisture will die out. As a result the possibility of adverse impacts on the fauna cannot be ruled out. In the case of cuts with weirs there are impacts similar to those from weirs in the upstream and downstream areas. In the region of the cut off arm there are additional adverse impacts that can be anticipated: - When the cut off arm is made dormant the water in it may undergo eutrophication. In tropical regions water hyacinths may overgrow the entire surface of the water with corresponding adverse effects on the fauna. - Cut off arms provide the right conditions for becoming breeding

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Satyajit319 grounds for insects and disease vectors waterborne and vector- borne diseases. - In cut off arms there may be a sharp rise in the fish population and when this is the case there will be a change in the species represented fish living in flowing water move away and those living in still water become more populous. Hydroelectric generator stations will change the discharge regime downstream and as a result there will be changes to the flora and fauna levelling out of discharge peak capacity operation will cause rises and falls etc. see the environmental brief Large-scale Hydraulic Engineering. The running of the turbines themselves may produce a death trap for fish. Changes in water quality in the cut off arm and the breeding of waterborne and vector-borne pathogens will create a threat to the health of the population Straightening of watercourses The shortening of the path of flow e.g. by the straightening of meanders causes a rise in discharge velocity and a result of this flood waves are dissipated more quickly. As a consequence: - the foreshore is no longer immersed or is not immerse as deeply as previously and because of this.

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Satyajit319 infiltration into the groundwater decreases and groundwater recharge is adversely affected - there is a change in the position of the groundwater table - bed and bank erosion begin to occur unless suitable bed stabilisation and bank protection are applied - in the estuary region or in areas where the bed gradient is shallow embankments must be built for protection against flooding caused by peak high water discharge. Changes in the groundwater will produce impacts on the flora. The drying up of areas of marsh or swamp will mean changes in the diversity of plant species. The fauna will be adversely affected likewise the composition of the fish population will be altered by the removal of spawning grounds and that of the population of other organisms by the removal of areas of still water and changes to riparian zones. The low risk of flooding will have an economically beneficial impact on the usefulness of the foreshore. Draining may enable economic use to be made of areas of marsh or swamp. Entire regions may be turned over to agricultural use by constructing drainage channels and setting up pumping stations which feed into the channelised river. This will necessarily mean a change in the flora and fauna of the land involved. The straightening operations will also interfere with the appearance of the landscape. Riparian vegetation which was characteristic of the landscape and peculiar to it will disappear. In socio-economic terms the impact of the operations in question will be beneficial in that there will be fewer floods and less damage of various kinds.

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Satyajit319 Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts Specifically in the case of rivers it should be remembered that generally speaking impacts may arise along their entire course. Due to the water supply that they require canals too have wide-ranging impacts. What will give trouble when evaluating the environmental impacts in this case is the question of quantifying the impacts. Qualitative descriptions are one option but to allow others to appreciate all the implications of what is being said they should be as detailed as possible. Due to the complex interrelationships involved and current ignorance as to the real causal factors that contribute to an impact it is only seldom that a single factor is responsible for an impact the possibility of misinterpretations cannot be ruled out. In this case a useful method of arriving at genuinely relevant conclusions may be to make a comparison with the impacts generated by existing river and canal engineering operations in similar situations climates topographical conditions etc. However when doing so it is important to identify factors that are relevant to the impacts in the particular environmental areas and to bring out the relationships that exist between the action taken and its impact. Particular importance should be attached to the questions of species protection changes in biotopes and maximum permitted changes in groundwater levels.

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Satyajit319 Interaction with other sectors The closest points of contact that river and canal engineering operations have are with sectors that generate an additional demand for water. Existing water rights will need to be taken into account in this case. The main sector that should be mentioned is agriculture because this is affected by all river and canal engineering projects either because it makes use of the same resource for irrigation purposes or because there is a change in the use of land or because terrestrial fauna are affected or because there are added secondary impacts. Mention should also be made of the supply of water. Water supply which is one of the priority concerns for developing an area must always be covered in the planning for all projects in all sectors and the demands it makes should always be considered as a matter of priority. Aspects of rural hydraulic engineering and large-scale hydraulic engineering projects and port and harbour construction projects often have a bearing on river and canal engineering. In this connection the reader is referred to the relevant environmental briefs Rural and Large-scale Hydraulic Engineering Water Supply etc. and the environmental briefs of more general ambit on planning should also be consulted.

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Satyajit319 Stone pitching under the bridge Pathara bandha Stone pitching right side of the embankment

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Satyajit319 EMBANKMENT AVAILABLE IN SALANDI CANAL DIVISION:- This Division looks after repair maintenance of different category of embankments as detailed below : Name of Embankment Length of embankment District constituency A. River Embankment l. C.E. No.2A on Salandi Right 14.50 Bhadrak Bhadra K 2. O.A.E. on Salandi left 10.50 Bhadrak -do- 3. O.A.E. on Salandi Right 10.50 Bhadrak -do- 4. Bedpur-Kabirpur Embkt.on Kansabans Rt. 10.50 Balasore Simulia 5. Bauripada-Radhaballavpur Embkt. On 5.00 Balasore Simulia Kansabansa Right. Total : 51 .00 B. Saline Enbankments 1. Paramanandapur-CharadiaHaripur 30.00 Saline Embankment on Baitarani left 2. Galia guide saline embankment left right 8.00 3. Bahuharipur Saline embankment 1.00 Bhadrak Chandabali Bhadrak -do- Bhadrak -do- on Baitarani left. 4. Jantuali-Biradia saline embankment 7.00 on Matei right. 5. Kandha-Neduali Embkt.on Baitarani Left. 9.90 Total : 65.90 Bhadrak Bhadrak - do- - do-

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Satyajit319 C. T.R.Embankments t. Chandabali Hengupati T.R.E. 26.00 Bhadrak Dhamnagar 2. Kaudiajore TRE 6.00 Bhadrak Chandabali 3. Nunajore T.R.E.Left tught 31 .40 Bhadrak Chandabali 4. Pirahat -Hengupati T.R.E. 3.00 Bhadrak Chandabali 5. Kelasahi-Barasar.T.R.E 3.40 Bhadrak Chandabali 6. Approach to Biswanathpur sluice 2.00 Bhadrak Chandabali 7. Approach to Arjunbindha sluice 7.00 Bhadrak Chandabali 8. Mantei R./E 10.50 Bhadrak Chandabali 9. Chandabali Tintor T.R.E. 6.00 Total 95.30 Grand Total :212.20km. Details about the Bedpur-Kabirpur embankment on river Kansabansa project Project starting date:-21/02/2014 Project cost:-7crore 10lakh Total length covered:-10km Stone pitching length:-4.100km Switch gates constructed:-2NosNear Kantabania Near Harsingpur

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Satyajit319 Switch gate near Kantabania Switch gate near Harsingpur

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Satyajit319 Summary assessment of environmental relevance In principle it is perfectly feasible for river and canal engineering projects to be planned and executed with only minor environmental impacts. Planning procedures and the engineering means both exist. However all over the world there has been experience of adverse effects on the environment. The reason for this was that in planning and executing river and canal engineering works it was only the purpose such as water power irrigation flood protection protection of drinking water or navigation and handling of goods that was considered or in other words attention was only paid to the use aspect and the impacts the projects would have on the natural environment and in the human sphere with all the problems of settlement/resettlement and changes in socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions were either totally ignored or given only cursory scrutiny. When major projects for making rivers navigable or for building canals which fragment the landscape are mooted sex-specific and group-specific socio-economic analyses should be carried out to see how far specific groups within the society will be affected by the adverse effects of carrying out the project or can share in its expected benefits. Hydraulic engineering operations have a particularly marked effect on women. River and canal engineering operations should always be planned and executed in such a way as to minimise the risk to the environment posed by the planning and building. By careful analysis of all the impacts and by making corrections at the planning stage it will be possible to keep the consequences of

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Satyajit319 mans interference with the ecosystem and with the human environment within acceptable bounds. The presence of human beings and the needs these human beings have are factors that must be accorded an essential place in the planning. This should be achieved by means of participatory decision- making processes that provide the persons affected with an opportunity to assert their justified interests and desires at all stages of the planning and execution of a project. REFERENCE  Annual report of Salandi canal division Bhadrak for the year 2015-16  EIA: Environmental Impact Assessment Papers by the World Bank Washington.  EAU: Recommendation of the working group on Ufrances1990  DVWK: Rules on water management Recommendations on observing ecological aspects in the development and maintenance of watercourses.  DVWK: Rules on water management river dikes 1984  Ecological Impact of Dam Projects Knowledge and follow-up for development policy cooperation. BMZ Research Report Volume 60 Weltforum-Verlag Cologne 1984.  Committee on International Cooperation in the Board of Trustees for Cultural Building "Water and the Environment": Series of the German National Committee of the International Commission for Water and Drainage ICID Issue 5.

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