Grammar Book

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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book By: Sofia Garvey Linares 1 st Period SP2

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents Nationalities Stem Changing Verbs Para Adjectives Object Pronoun Placement Direct Object Pronouns IOP (Indirect Object Pronouns Ser vs. Estar - Isimo (a) & g/c/z Verbs like Gustar Affirmative & Negative Words Pero vs. Sino DOP/IOP/SE Reflexive Verbs Tu Commands Affirmative + Irregulars + Negatives Los Adverbios-Mente Deber + other Modal Verbs Pat Participles as Adjectives Preterite Present Progressive

Nationalities :

Nationalities Mexico, Mexico D.F., Mexicano /a Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatelmalteco /a Honduras, Tugecigalpa , Hondureno/a El Salvador, San Salvador, Salvadoreno /a Nicuargua , Managua, Nuicuaraguense Costa Rica, San Jose, Costarricense Panama, Panama, Panameno /a Cuba, Havanna , Cubano /a Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo, Dominicano /a Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puertorriqueno /a Guinea Ecuatorial , Malabo, Guineano /a United States, Estadounidense France, Frances/a Venezuela, Caracas, Venezolano /a Colombia, Bogota, Colombiano /a Ecuador, Quito, Ecuatoriano /a Peru, Lima, Peruano \a Paraguay, Auncion , Paraguayo /a Bolivia, Sucre, Boliviano/a Chile, Santiago, Chileno /a Argentina, Buenos Aries, Argentino /a Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguayo /a Spain, Madrid, Espanol /a Canada, Canadiense England, Ingles Italy, Intaliano /a

Stem-Changing Verbs :

Stem-Changing Verbs E-I Stem Changing Verb: ( Vivir ) Vivo Vivimos Vives V ivis Vive Viven E-IE Stem Changing Verb: ( P referir ) Prefeiro Preferimos Prefeires Preferis Prefeire Prefeirem O-UE Stem Changing Verb: ( A lmorzar ) Almuerzo Almorzamos Almuerzas Almorzais Almuerza Amuerzan U-UE Stem Changing Verb: ( J ugar ) Juego Jugamos Juegas Juagais Juega Juegan To Eat L unch To Live To Play To Prefer

Para:

Para Para means “for” or “in order to” examples: Buscandan la bolsa para mi amiga . Este regalo para es ti . (This gift is for you.) Necesito el vestido para el lunes.(I need a dress by Monday.) El vaso es para agua . (The glass is for water.) El tren esta para salir . (The train is about to leave.)

Adjectives:

Adjectives If the word ends in a vowel - add an “s” to the end of the word to make it plural If the word ends in a consonant - add an “ es ” to the end of the word to make it plural If the word ends in “z” - add a “ ces ” to make it plural El L ago  Los Lagos

Object pronoun placement :

Object pronoun placement Options: Attach the Pronoun to an Infinitive: example ~ Voy a comer lo Attach the Pronoun to a P rogressive Tense ( ing’s ): example ~ Estoy comie nos Attach the Pronoun to an Affirmative Command: example ~ iComer lo ! Attach the Pronoun to a Conjugated Verb: example ~ Lo voy a comer.

Direct object pronouns:

Direct object pronouns Singular: Plural: m e me nos nos t e te les les l o la los las Chart Over Direct Object Pronouns What is being ‘VERBED?’ Example: Cecilia esta tomando fotos . Subject Verb Direct Object (Male) (Female) (Male) (Female)

Indirect object pronouns :

Indirect object pronouns Example: * le – Elena - Ella le vende la ropa Elena . le: pronoun Elena: Indirect Object * le – Elena - Ana le presta la falda a Elena . Tambien le preste unos bluejeans . (understood) AN INDIRECT OBJECT CAN BE ATTACHED *ADD ACCENT MARK le les a + (pronoun) a + (pronoun) Ana le presta la faldo a Elena Indirect Object Pronouns go INDIRECTLY to the Verb – Answers the question: “to whom?” “for whom?” Indirect Object Pronouns: me nos te os le les *the IOP’s highlighted are the same words as in DOP’s

SER VS. ESTAR:

SER VS. ESTAR SER Ser = to be People Things Orgin Occupation/Job ** Also used with “de” to express proffesion de + el = del Singular: Plural: yo -soy nosotros-somos tu-eres vosotros-sois ellos-es ustedes -son ESTAR ** not permeant Estar describes location & how you feel Estoy feliz . Estoy mal. Estar + Adjective; p hysical c onditions of places and things how people feel mentally & physically adj’s algre confundido limpo e xpresses orgin

‘-ISIMO(A)’ and g/c/z:

‘-ISIMO(A)’ and g/c/z To express extremes with the most adjectives, drop the final vowel and add the ending – isimo (a). The adjective must agree with the gender and number of the noun it modifies. La idea de Rosa es interesantisima . Rosa’s is very (extremely) interesting. When the last consonant is c , g , or z , spelling changes are required. c > qu rico (a) ri qu isimo (a) g > gu largo(a) lar gu isimo (a) z > c feliz feli c isimo (a)

Verbs like gustar :

Verbs like gustar MOST COMMON VERBS: Aburrir Encantar Faltar Fascinar Importar Interesar Molestar Quedar Gustar : to like Me gusta ese champu . I like that shampoo. (literal meaning) The shampoo is pleasing to me. Me gusta ese champu . IOP NOUN NOT A STEM CHANGING/BOOT VERB!!! Gusta Gustan S 3 rd person P 3 rd person

Affirmative & negative words:

Affirmative & negative words Notice that alguno (a) and ninguno (a) must match the gender of the noun they replace or modify. Alguno and Ninguno have different forms when used before masculine singular nouns. If a verb is proceeded by no, words that follow must be negative. A double negative is required in Spanish when no proceeds the verb. However, if a negative word, such as nunca or nadie , comes before the verb, a second negative is not needed. Negative: Nada ~ Nothing Nadie ~ No One Ningun ~ None Ninguno (a) ~ Not Any Nunca ~ Never Tampoco ~ Neither Affirmative: Algo ~ Something Alguien ~ Someone Algun / Alguno (a) ~ Same Siempre ~ Always Tambien ~ Also Algo de tomar ? Por ahora , nada mas. Las chicas quieren algun postre , pero Carlos no quiere ninguin postre . No quiero nada. Carlos no quiere ninguino . Nadie quiere postre . Las chicas nunca comen en casa.

Pero VS. Sino:

Pero VS. Sino Pero & Sino are translated mostly as "but" or "but rather", but they are much more than that. They can be translated as "however", "nevertheless" etc. ​ Maria es muy intelegente pero nada simpatica . ​ Maria is very smart but not kind.​ ​ El dia esta sloeado pero hace frio . ​ It is a sunny but cold day. ​ ​ You can also find ' sino ' in the structure 'no sólo ... sino ' (which could be translated as 'not only...but also'). If what is being mentioned is an object, you would say: 'No sólo ... sino también ' and if what follows is a clause you would say: 'No sólo ... sino que ( también / además )'.​ ​

DOp/IOP/Se:

DOp /IOP/Se DOP: “what is being verbed ?” IOP: “to whom or for whom?” Me Nos Te Os Lo/La Los/Las SE: that the 'se' form of the indirect object pronoun can either refer to a third person singular or plural when both (direct and indirect object) pronouns are used . To donate-> donar 1. I donate a book to the library. Yo dono un libro a la biblioteca. 2. I donate it to them. Yo se lo dono. © exceltra Learn to Speak Spanish

Tu commands – affirmative/negative/irregulars:

Tu commands – affirmative/negative/irregulars Affirmatives Regular: Give instructions or commands to someone by using the Affirmative tu commands of regular verbs. *Notice it is a tu command but it ends like a 3 rd person form. Caminar ~ Camina ! ~ Camina en el parque ! Comer ~ Come! ~ Come toda la hamburguesa ! Abrir ~ Abre ! ~ Abre la ouert , quiero entrar ! Negatives When you tell someone what not to do, use a negative command. Negative tu commands are formed by taking the you form of the present tense, dropping the –o, and adding the appropriate ening . Hablo - es for – ar verbs Vuelvo -as for – er /- ir verbs No Hables ! No Vuelvas ! Irregular: Infinitive: Command : d ecir di h acer h az i r v e p oner p on s alir sal s er se t ener ten v enir v en -Primero haz los quehaceres . First do the chores. Irregular: A few verbs have irregular negative tu commands. Notice that none of the yo forms of these verbs end in –o. dar ( doy ) e star ( estoy ) i r ( voy ) s er (soy) No le des mi deireccion a nadie . No estes tristes. No vayas a la tienda . No seas mala. > When using an object pronoun , attach the pronoun to the end of the command. ex. Cruza el parque ~ Cruza lo ! > Object pronouns precede the verbs in negative commands , just as with other conjugated verbs. e x. No lo uses! ~ Don’t use it. (the blowdryer )

Reflexive verbs:

Reflexive verbs Joaquin se diena por la manana . Reflexive Verb Subject y o - me llavo nosotros - nos lovamos te - te llavas vosotros - os llavais u d . - se llava uds . - se llavan e l/ ella - se lava ellas / ellos - se llavan Singular & Plural Pronouns Pablo se llava . *for singular & plural Ellos se lavan . Ellos se van a vestir . Ellos se van a vestirse . ** can be attached LAVAR: To wash o r clean LAVARSE: To wash or c lean oneself.

Los adverbios-mente :

Los adverbios-mente Claro Clara Claramente Constante Constata Comtamente Difícil Difícil Dificilmente Perfecto Perfecta Perfectamente Alegre Alegra Alegramente ** When 2 adverbs modify the same verb , only the second one takes the –mente and the first stays in feminine form .** Masculine Feminine - M ente Irregular Adverbs: Good = Bueno - Better = Mejor Bad = Malo - Worse = Peor Big = Grande - Older = Mayor (When r effering to age) Little = Pequeno - Younger = menor (when reffering to age) Old = Viejo - Older = Mayor Young = Joven - Younger = Menor

Deber + other modal verbs :

Deber + other modal verbs Ir + a + infinitive (are able to do something) Poder + infinitive (are able to do something) Querer + infinitive (want to do something) Deber + infinitive (should do something) The verb deber means should or ought to. To say what people should do, use a conjugated verb form of deber with the infinitive form of another verb. Debo barrer el suelo . Debes limpiar la cocina . Debe sacar la basura . I should sweep the floor. You should clean the kitchen. He should take out the trash.

Past participles as adjectives :

Past participles as adjectives Examples: Lapuerta ests cerrada . The door is closed. El resturante esta abierto . The restaurant is open. * Drop – ar ending & add –ado * Drop – er or – ir ending & add – ido

Preterite :

Preterite A definite time in the past. Has ab beginninh and/or ending. Las expressions para el uso ( tigger words) Examples: Ayer, Anoche , El ano pasado , La semana pasada , Ante ayer - ar verbs -e - amos - aste - asteis -o -aron - er verbs -I - imos - iste - isteis - io - ieron - ir verbs -I - imos - iste - isteis - io - ieron

Present progressive :

Present progressive Estar + ando /- iendo /- yendo The present progressive is only used to describe an action that is in the process of taking place. It is not used for future action. Creer Creyendo Ir Yendo Destruir Destruyendo Incluir Incluyendo Oir Oyendo Traer Treyendo Caerse Cayendose - ar - ir - ir /- er Regular Hablar Hablando Leer Leyendo Caer Cayendo Irregular *When you use the pronouns with the present progresive , you can put them in one of two places. Put pronouns before the conjugated form of estar … or attach them to the end of a present participle. Irregular: When the stem of an – er or – ir verb ends in a vowel, change the – iendo to - yendo to form the present participle. e i stem-changing verbs have a vowel change in the stem. Someother verbs also have a vowel stem change in them.