ch10 project monitoring & control

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Chapter 10 Project Monitoring and Control:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 1 Chapter 10 Project Monitoring and Control

Project Monitoring and Control:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 2 Project Monitoring and Control Monitoring – collecting, recording, and reporting information concerning project performance that project manger and others wish to know Controlling – uses data from monitor activity to bring actual performance to planned performance

Project Monitoring and Control:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 3 Project Monitoring and Control Why do we monitor? What do we monitor? When to we monitor? How do we monitor?

Why do we monitor?:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 4 Why do we monitor? Simply because we know that things don’t always go according to plan (no matter how much we prepare) To detect and react appropriately to deviations and changes to plans

What do we monitor? :

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 5 What do we monitor ? Men (human resources) Machines Materials Money Space Time Tasks Quality/Technical Performance

What do we monitor?:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 6 W hat do we monitor ? Inputs Time Money Resources Material Usage Tasks Quality/Technical Performance Outputs Progress Costs Job starts Job completion Engineering / Design changes Variation order (VO)

When do we monitor?:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 7 When do we monitor? End of the project Continuously Regularly Logically While there is still time to react As soon as possible At task completion At pre-planned decision points (milestones)

Where do we monitor?:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 8 Where do we monitor? At head office? At the site office? On the spot? Depends on situation and the ‘whats’

How do we monitor:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 9 How do we monitor Through meetings with clients, parties involved in project (Contractor, supplier,etc.) For schedule – Update CPA, PERT Charts, Update Gantt Charts Using Earned Value Analysis Calculate Critical Ratios Milestones Reports Tests and inspections Delivery or staggered delivery PMIS (Project Management Info Sys) Updating

Meetings – Some monitoring issues:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 10 Meetings – Some monitoring issues What problems do you have and what is being done to correct them? What problems do you anticipate in the future? Do you need any resources you do not yet have? Do you need information you do not have yet? Do you know anything that will give you schedule difficulties? Any possibility your task will finish early/late? Will your task be completed under/over/on budget?

Project Control Cycle:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 11 Project Control Cycle PLAN Specifications Project Schedule Project budget Resource plan Vendor contracts MONITOR Record status Report progress Report cost COMPARE Actual status against plan Schedule Cost ACTION Correct deviations from plan RE-PLAN as necessary

Project Control:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 12 Project Control Control – process and activities needed to correct deviations from plan Control the triple constraints time (schedule) cost (budget, expenses, etc) performance (specifications, testing results, etc.)

Techniques for monitoring and control:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 13 Techniques for monitoring and control Earned Value Analysis Critical Ratio

Earned Value Analysis:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 14 Earned Value Analysis A way of measuring overall performance (not individual task) is using an aggregate performance measure - Earned Value Earned value of work performed (value completed) for those tasks in progress found by multiplying the estimated percent physical completion of work for each task by the planned cost for those tasks. The result is amount that should be spent on the task so far. This can be compared with actual amount spent.

Earned Value Analysis:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 15 Earned Value Analysis Methods for estimating percent completion The 50-50 estimate. 50% is assumed when task is begun, and remaining 50% when work completed. 0-100% rule. This rule allows no credit for work until task is complete, highly conservative rule, project always seem late until the very end of project when everything appears to suddenly catch up Critical input rule. This rule assigns progress according to amount of critical input that has been used. Labor or skilled dependent, machine critical input – buy machine complete task – may be misinformation Proportional rule. This rule divides planned (or actual) time-to-date by total scheduled time(or budgeted (or actual ) cost-to-date by total budgeted cast] to calculate percent complete. This is commonly used rule.

Earned Value Analysis:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 16 Earned Value Analysis Refer to earned value chart – basis for evaluating cost and performance to date If total value of the work accomplished is in balance with the planned (baseline) cost, and actual cost then top mgmt has no particular need for a detailed analysis of individual tasks Earned value concept – combines cost reporting & aggregate performance reporting into one comprehensive chart

Earned Value Analysis:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 17 Earned Value Analysis Baseline cost to completion – referred to as budget at completion (BAC) Actual cost to date – referred to as estimated cost at completion (EAC) Identify several variances according to two guidelines A negative variance is ‘bad’ Cost and schedule variances are calculated as earned value minus some other measure

Earned Value Chart – basis for evaluating cost & performance to date:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 18 Earned Value Chart – basis for evaluating cost & performance to date

Earned Value Analysis - Variances:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 19 Earned Value Analysis - Variances 4 types of variances; Cost (spending) variance (CV) – difference between budgeted cost of work performed (earned value) (BCWP) and actual cost of that work (ACWP) Schedule variance (SV) – difference between earned value (BCWP) and cost of work we scheduled to perform to date (BCWS) Time variance (TV) –difference between time scheduled for work performed (STWP) and actual time to perform it (ATWP)

Earned Value Variance - Formula:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 20 Earned Value Variance - Formula CV = BCWP – ACWP (negative value - cost overrun) SV = BCWP – BCWS (negative value - behind schedule) TV = STWP – ATWP (negative value - delay) Index (Ratios) Cost Performance Index (CPI) = BCWP/ACWP Schedule Performance Index (SPI) = BCWP/BCWS Time Performance Index (TPI) = STWP/ATWP


Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 21 EXAMPLE Assume that operations on a Work Package cost RM 1,500 to complete. They were originally scheduled to finish today. At this point, we actually spent RM1,350. And we estimate that we have completed two thirds (2/3) of the work. What are the cost and schedule variances? CV = BCWP – ACWP = 1500 (2/3) – 1350 = - 350 SV = BCWP – BCWS = 1500 (2/3) – 1500 = - 500 CPI = BCWP/ACWP = 1500(2/3)/1350 = 0.74 SPI = BCWP/BCWS = 1500(2/3)/1500 = 0.67 Spending higher than budget, and given what we have spent, we are not as far along as we should be (have not completed as much work as we should have )

PowerPoint Presentation:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 22 Possible to have one of indicators to be favorable while the other unfavorable Might be ahead of schedule and behind costs Six possibilities (see figure next slide)

6 Possibilities Earned Value Analysis:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 23 6 Possibilities Earned Value Analysis

EXERCISE (Text P.544 Problem 4):

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 24 EXERCISE (Text P.544 Problem 4) A project to develop a country park has an actual cost in month 17 of $350,000, a planned cost of $475,000, and a value completed of $300,000. Find the cost and schedule variances and the three indexes. Month 17 $ Planned (Baseline) – 475,000 Actual cost – 350,000 Value completed – 300,000 BCWP ACWP BCWS Time t


Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 25 Solution BCWS = 475,000 BCWP = 300,000 ACWP = 350,000 CV = 300,000 – 350,000 = -50,000 (negative value - cost overrun) SV = 300,000 – 475,000 = -175,000 (negative value - behind schedule) Cost Performance Index (CPI) = BCWP/ACWP = 300/350 = 0.86 Schedule Performance Index (SPI) = BCWP/BCWS = 300/475 = 0.63 Time Performance Index (TPI) = STWP/ATWP Scheduled Time Work Performed (STWP) can be estimated Time t = Schedule Variance/Slope of Planned costs = -175,000/ (475,000/17) = - 6.26 months  Time Difference= 17- 6.26 = 10.74 TV = 10.74/17 = 0.63 CV = BCWP – ACWP SV = BCWP – BCWS

Critical ratio:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 26 Critical ratio Sometimes, especially large projects, it may be worthwhile calculating a set of critical ratios for all project activities The critical ratio is actual progress x budgeted cost scheduled progress actual cost If ratio is 1 everything is probably on target The further away form 1 the ratio is, the more we may need to investigate

Critical ratio example:

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 27 Critical ratio example Calculate the critical ratios for the following activities and indicate which are probably on target and need to be investigated. Activity Actual progress Scheduled Progress Budgeted Cost Actual cost Critical ratio (CR) A 4 days 4 days 60 40 B 3 days 2 days 50 50 C 2 days 3 days 30 20 D 1 day 1 day 20 30 E 2 days 4 days 25 25

Critical ratio example :

Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 28 Critical ratio example Can be on schedule and below budget (Act A) Why so good? Cutting corners? Can be behind schedule but below budget (Act C) Can be on budget but physical progress lagging (Act E) Can be on schedule but cost running higher than budget (Act D) On budget ahead of schedule (Act B)


Chapter10 Project Monitoring & Control 29 Summary Need proper project monitoring and control mechanisms Tools available to help in monitoring and controlling activities There are human control and management aspects not covered here

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