rural development and research ethics

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Prepared by , Jadav Sagar K. I sem. M.Sc. Agri (Crop physiology ) Reg no : 2010114037 N.M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agriculture University Navsari-396 450 S ubmitted to , ` Dr.R.D.Pandya Prof. And HOD Dept .of extension education N.M.College of Agriculture NAU Navsari -396450 PROJECT ON UNIT III (PGS- 505) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, RESEARCH ETHICSA ND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES.

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Rural Development is defined as improving the living standards of the masses of the low income population residing in rural areas . Rural development in general is used to denote the actions and initiatives taken to improve the standard of living in non-Urban neighbour hoods , countryside, and remote villages. These communities can be exemplified with a low ratio of inhabitants to open space. Agricultural activities may be prominent in this case whereas economic activities would relate to the primary sector, production of foodstuffs and raw materials . Definitions According to World Bank rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people by extending the benefits of development to the poorest among those who seek livelihood in the rural areas. According to Finance Ministry rural development is systematic and integrated use of national resources enabling every person to engage himself in production and social useful occupation and earn income that will meet at least the basic needs

Connotation of Rural Development:

Connotation of Rural Development The term rural development connotes overall development of rural areas with a view to improve the quality of life of rural people. In this sense, it is a comprehensive and multidimensional concept , and encompasses the development of agriculture and allied activities, village and cottage industries and crafts, socio-economic infrastructure, community services and facilities, and, above all, the human resources in rural areas. As a phenomenon, rural development is the end-result of interactions between various physical, technological, economic, socio-cultural and institutional factors . As a strategy, it is designed to improve the economic and social well-being of a specific group of people – the rural poor. As a discipline, it is multi-disciplinary in nature, representing an intersection of agricultural, social, behavioural, engineering and management sciences .

Rural Development in India – The Concept:

Rural Development in India – The Concept The development of rural areas in India is a multi dimensional problem, which has been so far viewed by the policy makers and academicians mainly from the economic aspect only. In India rural development is not only an economic problem but also a more social problem. Michael P. Todaro views rural development most suitable, in Indian Context, in following manner : Improvement in the level of living standard including employment , education, health nutrition, housing and a variety of social services. Decreasing in equality in distribution of rural incomes and in the rural urban imbalances in incomes and economic opportunities. To sustain the capacity of rural sector.

Rural Development Policies and Strategies:

Rural Development Policies and Strategies Growth Oriented Strategy Welfare Oriented Strategy Responsive Strategy Integrated or Holistic Strategy

Community Development Programme (CDP):

Community Development Programme (CDP) The Community Development Programme was launched in India on 2nd October, 1952 with 55 Community Development Projects (CDPs0. Each project had an operational area of about 400 to 500 square miles, comprising 300 villages and a population of about 2 lakhs. The project area was divided into 3 development blocks, each consisting of about 100 villages and a population of 60 to 70thousand . The project was headed by a Project officer, and a number of subject matter Extension Officers in the disciplines of agriculture, animal husbandry, cooperation, industries, rural engineering, social education etc. each project had about 60 multi-purpose. Village Level Workers (VLWs), one for each group of 5 to 10 villages. They were government appointed extension functionary at the lowest level. Who were nearest to the people. The multipurpose VLWs were common to the development departments engaged in rural work.

Concepts of Community Development:

Concepts of Community Development The term Community Development appears to have originated from Cambridge in England. In 1948, the Cambridge Summer Conference on African Administration recommended this term defining it as a movement designed to promote better living for the whole community with the active participation , if possible on the initiative of the community, but if this initiative is no forthcoming spontaneously , by the use of techniques for arousing and stimulating it in order to secure its action and enthusiastic response to the movement. The United Nations (1956) defined Community Development as the process by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of the governmental authorities to improve the economic , social and cultural conditions of the communities, to integrate these communities into the life of the nation and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress. Community Development has also been defined as a balanced programme for stimulating the local potential for growth in every direction. Its promise is of reciprocal advance in both wealth and welfare, not on the basis of outside charity but by building on the latent vitality of the beneficiaries themselves with the minimum of outside aid.

Objectives of Community Development Programme in India:

Objectives of Community Development Programme in India To assist each village in having effective panchayats , cooperatives and schools; and Through these village institutions plan and carry out integrated, multi-phased family, village, block and district plans for : Increasing agricultural production Improving existing village crafts and industries and organizing new ones , Providing minimum essential health services and improving health practices, Providing recreational facilities and programmes, Improving housing and family living conditions, and Providing programmes for village women and youth

Activities of Community Development Programme:

Activities of Community Development Programme Agricultural and related matters Reclamation of available virgin and waste land. Provision of water for agriculture through irrigation canals, tube wells, surface wells, tanks, lift irrigation from rivers, lakes and pools etc. Development of rural electrification. Provision of commercial fertilisers. Provision of quality seeds. Promotion of improved agricultural techniques and land utilisation. Provision of veterinary aid. Provision of technical information, materials and bulletins on agriculture. Provision for the dissemination of information through slides, films, radio broadcast and lectures. Provision of improved agricultural implements. Provision of marketing and credit facilities. Provision breeding centres for animal husbandry. Development of inland fisheries. Promotion of home economics. Development of fruit and vegetable cultivation. Provision of soil survey and information

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Communication s Provision of roads. Encouragement of mechanical road transport services. Development of animal transport facilities. Education Provision of compulsory and free education, preferably basic education, at the elementary stage. Provision of high and middle schools. Provision of adult and library services. Health Provision of sanitation (including drainage and disposal of wastes) and public health measures. Provision for the control of malaria and other diseases. Provision of improved drinking water supplies. Provision of medical aid for the ailing. Antenatal care of expectant mothers and midwifery services. Provision of generalised of public health services and educatio

Development Programmes Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP):

Development Programmes Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) Intensive Agricultural District Programme popularly known as Package Programme “ Was thus launched in the country from Kharif 1960. On a pilot basis in seven selected districts. The Central idea behind the IADP was that increased agricultural productivity shall lead to economic growth , which shall bring welfare to the society. The programme aims at combining technical know-how, credit and production supplies for stepping up agricultural production. The method adopted in IADP was to demonstrate the feasibility of increased agricultural production rapidly by concentrating all factors of production at the same time in an integrated action programme in selected areas fulfilling optimum conditions. Agriculture, like all other industry needs high degree of investment before it can be self-generating and self-financing.

distinctive features of IADP:

distinctive features of IADP Through factors of production were known earlier, they were not provided simultaneously, timely and adequately. Essential input like fertilizers etc. to be made available 100 percent of the requirement. Previously credit was available only to the credit-worthy farmers. In this programme, any farmer who joins the programme has a farm production plan and has the potential to get increased yield, will be given credit. In selected areas more agricultural and cooperative staff will be posted. Composite demonstrations instead of single factor demonstrations. Economics of the demonstrations will be worked out. Periodical training of staff

Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP):

Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) The Drought Prone Areas Programme, formerly known as Rural Works Programme, was initiated in 1970-71 as a Non-Central Sector Scheme. Seventy –four districts have been identified as drought prone and they have been grouped under 54 units. The programme aimed at mitigating the severity of scarcity conditions by executing rural works to generate employment. The programme was sought to be reoriented on the basis of an area development approach, and was redesigned as the Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) at the time of the mid-term appraisal of the Fourth Five Year Plan. The programme was confined to that area which was originally taken up under the Rural Works Programme.

The basis objectives of the programme:

The basis objectives of the programme Reducing the severity of the impact of drought Stabilising the income of the people, particularly weaker sections of the society Restoring the ecological balance. Development and management of water resources Soil and moisture conservation Afforestation Restructuring the cropping pattern and pasture development Changes in agronomic practices Livestock and dairy development and Development of small farmers, marginal farmers and agricultural labourers.

Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY):

Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) Launched on 1-4-1999 Largest self employment programme for rural poor SGSY was introduced after restructuring and merging the following programmes Development of Women and Children in Rural Area (DWCRA) Million Well Scheme ( MWS) Training Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM) Supply of Improved Toolkits to Rural Artisans (SITRA) Ganga Kalyan Yojana (GKY ) Aims To bring the assisted families above poverty line in rural area To establish a large number of micro-enterprises in the rural area and building upon the potential of the rural people. Target beneficiaries are BPL family members and SHG consisting of 10-20 BPL family members in rural area

Salient Features:

Salient Features It is a holistic programme covering all aspects of self-employment, i.e. organization of the rural poor into SHG, training and capacity building activity, credit, technology, infrastructure and marketing . It is a credit - cum subsidy programme, in which credit is critical component, subsidy being only a minor and enabling element. It support for individual and group projects. Individual Projects: Subsidy; 30% or Rs.7500/- for general category and 50% or Rs.10, 000/- for SC/ST Margin Money Contribution by Beneficiary: No margin money upto Rs.50, 000/-and 15-25% margin money (including subsidy) for Rs.50, 000/- and above Group Project Subsidy : 50% or Rs.1.25 Lakhs or Rs.10, 000/- per member for group schemes consisting 10-20 BPL family members in rural area. Margin Money Contribution by Beneficiary: No margin money upto Rs.3.00 Lakhs and 15-25% margin money (including subsidy) For Rs . 3 Lakhs and above Implementing Agency: Zilla Panchayat / Taluk Panchayat

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act:

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA ) was enacted in September 2005 and brought into force w.e.f February 2006 in 200 most backward districts. Objective To providing 100 days of guaranteed unskilled wage employment to each rural household opting for it. The NREGA marks a paradigm shift and stands out among the plethora of wage employment programmes , as it bestows a legal right and guarantee to the rural population through an Act of Parliament and is not a scheme unlike the other wage employment programmes, Coverage It covers all the districts of the country within five years. The focus of the act is on works relating to water conservation, drought proofing (including afforestation / tree plantation), land development , flood control/ protection (including drainage in waterlogged areas) and rural connectivity in terms of all-weather roads. Each district has to prepare perspective plan of 5 years with a bottom up approach deriving from the needs of the local community. The said plan should have the approval of the community and the PRIs.

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana:

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana Pursuant to the announcement made by the Hon'ble Prime Minister in his Independence Day speech , a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme, namely, Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana ( SGRY) was launched on 25th September, 2001 by merging the on-going schemes of EAS and the JGSY. Objectives The objective of the programme is to provide additional wage employment in the rural areas as also food security alongside the creation of durable community, social and economic infrastructure in the rural areas. The programme is self-targeting in nature with special emphasis to provide wage employment to women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and parents of children withdrawn from hazardous occupations.

Salient features of SGRY:

Salient features of SGRY The Sampoorna Grameen RozgarYojana (SGRY) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) being implemented with a total outlay of Rs.10,000 crores . Under the Scheme, 50 lakh tonnes of food grains amounting to Rs.5,000 crores (at economic cost ) is provided every year, free of cost to the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations . The remaining funds (Rs.5,000 crores ) is utilized, to meet the cost component of wages and material cost . The cost of the cash component of the Programme is shared by the Centre and States in the ratio of 75:25 . The payment for food grains is made by the Ministry of Rural Development to the Food Corporation of India (FCI) directly. About 100 crore mandals of employment are envisaged to be generated every year in the rural areas through the SGRY. Fifty per cent of the total available funds under the SGRY are provided to each stream. Every worker seeking employment under the SGRY are provided 5 kg. of food grains (in kind) per mandal as part of wages.

Problems / Constraints in Implementation of Rural Development Programmes:

Problems / Constraints in Implementation of Rural Development Programmes Voluntary organization is an agency, organized or unorganized, structured or unstructured which work for the welfare of a community in any given area of its volition (willingness). So it can be said that it is a non-political, secular, non-profit making, non-governmental and philanthropic (urge to serve people) organization which operates through programmes and projects to eradicate poverty . Special features of Voluntary Organizations 1. Voluntary action 2. Innovativeness ( newness of idea) 3. Commitment and dedication among workers for effective implementation. 4. Flexibility in approach to suit local conditions 5. High level of motivation 6. Minimum procedural practices 7. Natural capabilities 8. Better grasp of needs and problems of people

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Intermediately functions of NGOs ( Voluntary Organization ) 1. Facilitating communication between people and government 2. Helping to identify and voice community needs 3. Supporting, participation and group formulation 4. Training and building the capacity of community groups 5. Channelising resources at the community level Effective NGO’s BAIF – Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation IDS – India Development Service ISARD - Institute for Studies on Agriculture and Rural Development MYRADA – Mysore Resettlement and Development Agency CAPART – Council for Advancement of Peoples Action and Rural Technologies Funding of Voluntary Organizations Government, non-government, foreign agencies, donations

Panchayat Raj Institutions in Implementation of Rural Development Programmes:

Panchayat Raj Institutions in Implementation of Rural Development Programmes The passage of the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992 marks a new era in the federal democratic set up of the country and provides Constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj Institutions. The Act which came into force on 24 April, 1993 stipulates that Panchayats shall be given powers and authority to function as institutions of self-government . Salient features of the Act A 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj for all States having a population of over 20 lakhs Regular Panchayat elections every 5 years Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population and not less than one third seats for women State Finance Commission to make recommendations on financial powers of the Panchayats Independent State Election Commissions

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The Panchayats receive funds from three sources – (i) local body grants, as recommended by the Central Finance Commission, (ii) funds for implementation of centrally-sponsored schemes, and (iii) funds released by the state governments on the recommendations of the State Finance Commissions . Panchayati Raj is a system of governance in which gram panchayats are the basic units of administration. It has 3 levels: village, block and district. At the village level, it is called a Panchayat , at the taluk level it is Taluk Panchayat and at district level it is Zilla Panchayat . Village Panchayat It is a local body working for the good of the village. The number of members usually ranges from 7 to 31; occasionally, groups are larger, but they never have fewer than 7 members. Gram Sabha Gram sabha is constituted by all members of a village over the age of 18 years. The Gram Sabha elects the Gram Panchayat a council of elected members taking decisions on issues key to a village's social, cultural and economic life: thus, a Gram Panchayat is also a village's body of elected representatives. The council leader is named Sarpanch in Hindi, and each member is a Gram Panchayat Sadasya or Panch . word that means Five Persons.

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Taluk Panchayat Taluk Panchayat is a local government body at the tehsil or Taluka level in India. It works for the villages of the Tehsil or Taluka that together are called a Development Block. Itis the link between the Gram Panchayat and the district administration. There are a number of variations of this institution in various states. It is known as Mandal Praja Parishad in Andhra Pradesh, Taluka panchayat in Gujarat . Functions Implement schemes for the development of agriculture. Establishment of primary health centres and primary schools. Supply of drinking water, drainage, construction/repair of roads. Development of cottage and small-scale industries and opening of cooperative societies. Establishment of youth organisations. Sources of income The main sources of income of the Taluk Panchayat are grants-in-aid and loans from the State Government.

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Zilla Panchayat Zilla Panchayat looks after the administration of the rural area of the district and its office is located at the district headquarters. It is headed by the "District Collector" or the "District Magistrate“ or the "Deputy Commissioner". It is the link between the state government and the taluk panchayats Functions 1. Provide essential services and facilities to the rural population and the planning and execution of he development programmes for the district. 2. Supply improved seeds to farmers. Inform them of new techniques of training. Undertake construction of small-scale irrigation projects and percolation tanks. Maintain pastures and grazing lands. 3. Set up and run schools in villages. Execute programmes for adult literacy. Run libraries. 4. Start Primary Health Centers and hospitals in villages. Start mobile hospitals for hamlets, vaccination drives against epidemics and family welfare campaigns. 5. Construct bridges and roads.

Problems / Constraints in Implementation of Rural Development Programmes:

Problems / Constraints in Implementation of Rural Development Programmes Inadequate Coordination As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned / formulated by DRDA in corporation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organization failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies / organizations are trying theirbest to stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme are required to maintain good coordination among them. Inadequate funds The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production . In order to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of weaker section people are not improved even after 50 years of planned economic development . The upliftment of their socio-economic condition also require high dose of investment..

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Leakage of benefits It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups . Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-economic condition of the weaker section like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non agricultural labourers , rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that benefits are not properly reaching to theses classes. Low Sustaining Impact It is observed that a considerable number of rural developments programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development / administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity. This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no development approach / thoughts. This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes . Dominance of welfare over productivity In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasized under these programmes

PowerPoint Presentation:

It is also evident that provision of long term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 percent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries. This reduces the productivity motive and attitude of the beneficiaries. More Generalized Programme Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development Programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmers should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values