The process of Reproduction

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Lec.5 Comparative Biology Hussein Sabit, Ph.D

The Reproductive Process : 

The Reproductive Process

Reproduction : 

Reproduction Reproduction is one of the ubiquitous properties of life. Evolution is highly linked to reproduction. Two modes of reproduction are recognized: Asexual Sexual

Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction : 

Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction –is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only, it is reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization. A more stringent definition is agamogenesis which is reproduction without the fusion of gametes.

Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction : 

Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction –is the creation of a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms. The two main processes are: meiosis, involving reduction of the chromosome number and fertilization, involving the fusion of two gametes. During meiosis, the chromosomes of each pair usually cross over to achieve homologous recombination.

Asexual Reproduction : 

Asexual Reproduction Bacteria and many protozoa can reproduce by binary fission – separating into two or more individuals approximately the same size. In Paramecium, a single cell divides into two equal halves, each of which becomes a separate paramecium cell. The Paramecium is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction as well as a rare method of nuclear reorganization called Endomixis.

Asexual Reproduction : 

Asexual Reproduction Budding is a form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism grows on another one. The new organism remains attached as it grows, separating from the parent organism only when it is mature. Since the reproduction is asexual, the newly created organism is a clone and is genetically identical to the parent organism. The offspring may separate or remain attached to form colonies.

Asexual Reproduction : 

Asexual Reproduction Freshwater sponges release specialized groups of cells called gemmules that can grow into new individuals.

Asexual Reproduction : 

Asexual Reproduction Fragmentation results when an organism’s body is broken into several pieces and each piece grows into a new organism. Regeneration – the regrowth of lost body parts.

Asexual Reproduction : 

Asexual Reproduction Fragmentation occurs in some sponges, annelids, tunicates. Sea stars can regenerate lost limbs, but only species in the genus Linckia can form new individuals from broken arms.

Asexual Reproduction - Advantages : 

Asexual Reproduction - Advantages Animals living far from members of their own species can reproduce without having to search for a mate. Numerous offspring quickly – ideal for colonizing a new area. Advantageous in a stable, favorable environment because it reproduces a successful genotype precisely.

Sexual Reproduction : 

Sexual Reproduction Generally involves two parents. Special germ cells unite to form a zygote. Sexual reproduction recombines parental characters. A richer, more diversified population results. In haploid asexual organisms mutations are expressed and selected quickly. In sexual reproduction a normal gene on the homologous chromosome may mask a gene mutation.

Sexual Reproduction : 

Sexual Reproduction Why do so many animals reproduce sexually rather than asexually? The costs of sexual reproduction are greater than asexual methods: More complicated. Requires more time. Uses more energy. The cost of meiosis to the female is passage of only half of her genes to offspring.

Sexual Reproduction : 

Sexual Reproduction However: Sexual organisms produce more novel genotypes to survive in times of environmental change. In crowded habitats, selection is intense and diversity prevents extinction. On a geological time scale sexual lineages with less variation are prone to extinction. Many invertebrates with both sexual and asexual modes enjoy the advantages of both.

Parthenogenesis : 

Parthenogenesis Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction found in females, where growth and development of embryos occurs without fertilization by a male. Ameiotic parthenogenesis – no meiosis, egg is formed by mitosis (diploid) Meiotic parthenogenesis – haploid ovum formed by meiosis, it may be activated by a male (or not).

Parthenogenesis : 

Parthenogenesis In some animals (aphids, rotifers, Daphnia) the females can produce two types of eggs. One must be fertilized. One type will develop directly into haploid adults – parthenogenesis. Haploid females produce eggs by mitosis.

Parthenogenesis : 

Parthenogenesis Daphnia reproduce asexually (parthenogenesis) when conditions are favorable. In times of environmental stress, they utilize sexual reproduction.

Parthenogenesis : 

Parthenogenesis In many social insects, like honeybees, males (drones) are haploid and are produced by parthenogenesis while females (workers & queens) develop from fertilized eggs.

Parthenogenesis : 

Parthenogenesis Parthenogenesis occurs in vertebrates in some fishes, amphibians, and lizards. An egg produced parthenogenetically may be either haploid (i.e., with one set of dissimilar chromosomes) or diploid (i.e., with a paired set of chromosomes). After meiosis, the chromosomes are doubled, creating diploid “zygotes”.

Hermaphroditism : 

Hermaphroditism Hermaphroditism occurs when an organism has both male and female reproductive systems. Monoecious Some can fertilize themselves. Usually a mate is required – they can fertilize each other. In biology, a hermaphrodite is a plant or animal that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes.

Sequential Hermaphroditism : 

Sequential Hermaphroditism In sequential hermaphroditism, an individual reverses its sex during its lifetime. In some animals, sex reversal is associated with age, size and social conditions. Fish are female first. The largest female becomes male if the previous male dies.

Sequential Hermaphroditism : 

Sequential Hermaphroditism There are also sequential hermaphrodites that are male first, later changing to female. This occurs in species that produce more eggs at a bigger size – so it is advantageous to have larger females. Ex:Oysters

Fertilization : 

Fertilization Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm into a single diploid cell, the zygote. External Internal

External Fertilization : 

External Fertilization External fertilization – fertilization takes place outside the female’s body. A wet environment is required so gametes don’t dry out and so sperm may swim to the eggs.

External Fertilization : 

External Fertilization Environmental cues (day length, temperature) or chemical cues may cause a whole population to release gametes at once. Increases likelihood of fertilization. © 1999 New World Publications. http://www.fishid.com/learnctr/corspawn.htm

Internal Fertilization : 

Internal Fertilization Internal fertilization allows terrestrial animals to reproduce away from water. Cooperative behavior leading to copulation is required.

Pheromones : 

Pheromones Pheromones are chemical signals released into the environment by one organism that influence the physiology or behavior of members of the same species. Effective in very small amounts. Mate attractants.

Ensuring Survival of Offspring : 

Ensuring Survival of Offspring Species with external fertilization produce huge quantities of gametes that result in lots of zygotes. Predation on young is high. Few will survive to reproduce.

Ensuring Survival of Offspring : 

Ensuring Survival of Offspring Species with internal fertilization produce fewer zygotes, but protect them more from predation. Tough eggshells Embryo may develop in reproductive tract of female Parental care of eggs & offspring

Advantages of Sexual Reproduction : 

Advantages of Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction has costs including finding mates, greater energy cost, reduced proportion of genes passed on to offspring, and slower population growth. However, sexual reproduction increases variability in the population – important during times of environmental change.

Gamete Production & Delivery : 

Gamete Production & Delivery Gametes (eggs & sperm) are required for sexual reproduction. Usually, gametes are produced in gonads (ovaries & testes). Germ cells are set aside early in development. They will produce only gametes.

Migration of Germ Cells : 

Migration of Germ Cells Germ cells arise in the yolk-sac endoderm of vertebrates – not in the gonads. They migrate to the gonads using amoeboid movement.

Gametogenesis : 

Gametogenesis Gametogenesis – the production of gametes. Spermatogenesis – each primary spermatocyte divides to form 4 sperm. Oogenesis – each primary oocyte divides to form 1 ovum and 2-3 polar bodies. In oogenesis, cytokinesis is unequal, most of the cytoplasm goes to one daughter cell which becomes the ovum. The other cells, polar bodies, degenerate.

Spermatogenesis : 

Spermatogenesis Outermost layer of the seminiferous tubules contain spermatogonia, diploid cells that grow to become primary spermatocytes. After the first meiotic division, they are called secondary spermatocytes. When meiosis is complete the haploid cells are spermatids.

Spermatogenesis : 

Spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis : 

Spermatogenesis Spermatids mature into motile sperm with a tail for locomotion, and a head containing an acrosome as well as the nucleus.

Oogenesis : 

Oogenesis In the ovary, early germ cells called oogonia are diploid. Oogonia grow to become primary oocytes. After the first meiotic division, the cytoplasm divides unequally and only one secondary oocyte and one polar body result. Following the second meiotic division, one ootid and another polar body result. The ootid develops into a functional ovum.

Oogenesis : 

Oogenesis

Oogenesis : 

Oogenesis Meiosis is usually arrested at the beginning of meiosis and is not completed until ovulation or fertilization.

Reproductive Patterns : 

Reproductive Patterns Oviparous – animals that lay eggs. Most invertebrates, many vertebrates Ovoviviparous – animals that retain the eggs within their bodies. Nourishment comes from the egg. Some annelids, insects, some fishes, reptiles. Viviparous – eggs develop in oviduct or uterus, nourishment from mother. Mammals, some sharks, scorpions.

Invertebrate Reproductive Systems : 

Invertebrate Reproductive Systems Many insects have separate sexes, internal fertilization and have complex reproductive systems. Female crickets use long ovipositors to deposit eggs.

Gamete Production & Delivery : 

Gamete Production & Delivery In vertebrates, reproductive systems are similar with a few important variations. Nonmammalian vertebrates usually have one combined opening, the cloaca, for the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems. The uterus is partly or completely divided into two chambers in most vertebrates. Humans & other mammals with few young, birds & snakes have a single structure.

Female Reproductive System : 

Female Reproductive System Ovaries are where female gametes, egg cells, are produced. A follicle contains one egg cell as well as follicle cells that nurture the developing egg. Most/all of the follicles a woman will produce have formed before birth.

Female Reproductive System : 

Female Reproductive System Each month from puberty through menopause one follicle ruptures and releases its egg cell – ovulation. The corpus luteum forms from the ruptured follicle and secretes estrogen and progesterone to help maintain the uterine lining during pregnancy. If the egg is not fertilized the lining disintegrates.

Female Reproductive System : 

Female Reproductive System After ovulation, the egg leaves the ovary and enters the oviduct, which it follows to the uterus.

Male Reproductive System : 

Male Reproductive System Testes are where male gametes, sperm cells, are produced. Testes contain the seminiferous tubules where sperm are formed. Leydig cells scattered between the tubules produce testosterone & other androgens. Sperm production can’t occur at normal body temperature in mammals, so the testes are held outside the body abdominal cavity in the scrotum.

Male Reproductive System : 

Male Reproductive System After leaving the testes, sperm pass through the epididymis where they become motile and gain the ability to fertilize an egg. Sperm leave the body through the vas deferens and urethra.

Reproductive Cycles : 

Reproductive Cycles Males produce sperm continuously, whereas females only release one or a few eggs at certain intervals.

Reproductive Cycles in Female Mammals : 

Reproductive Cycles in Female Mammals Humans & some other primates have a menstrual cycle while other mammals have an estrous cycle. In both, ovulation occurs at a time when the endometrial lining of the uterus is ready for an embryo to implant. If no egg is fertilized, the lining is shed (menstruation) in humans & other primates and is reabsorbed in other mammals.

Reproductive Cycles in Female Mammals : 

Reproductive Cycles in Female Mammals Female mammals that have estrous cycles may have more behavioral changes. Estrous cycles may be more closely tied to season and climate. Females will usually only mate when in estrus – the time surrounding ovulation.

Female Reproductive Cycle : 

Female Reproductive Cycle The female reproductive cycle in humans contains two parts: Uterine (menstrual) cycle Ovarian cycle One integrated cycle involving the uterus & ovaries.

Female Reproductive Cycle : 

Female Reproductive Cycle The ovarian and uterine cycles are regulated by changing hormone levels in the blood.

The Ovarian Cycle : 

The Ovarian Cycle GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is released from the hypothalamus which stimulates the release of LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) from the pituitary gland. FSH stimulates follicle growth, aided by LH. The follicle cells start producing estrogen. Rise in estrogen during the follicular phase.

The Ovarian Cycle : 

The Ovarian Cycle When the secretion of estrogen begins to rise steeply, the release of FSH and LH rise rapidly as well. Low levels of estrogen inhibit FSH & LH production. High levels of estrogen stimulate FSH & LH production. (Positive feedback)

The Ovarian Cycle : 

The Ovarian Cycle The maturing follicle develops an internal fluid filled cavity and grows very large. The follicular phase ends with ovulation. The follicle ruptures releasing the secondary oocyte.

The Ovarian Cycle : 

The Ovarian Cycle Following ovulation, during the luteal phase, LH stimulates transformation of the follicle into the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone. As the combination of these hormones rises, GnRH production in the hypothalamus is inhibited. (Negative feedback)

The Ovarian Cycle : 

The Ovarian Cycle At the end of the luteal phase, the corpus luteum disintegrates and production of estrogen and progesterone drops. Now, the hypothalamus will start producing GnRH and the cycle starts over.

The Uterine Cycle : 

The Uterine Cycle Estrogen and progesterone secreted in the ovary affect the uterus. Increasing amounts of estrogen released by the growing follicles causes the lining of the uterus (endometrium) to thicken. The follicular phase of the ovarian is coordinated with the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle.

The Uterine Cycle : 

The Uterine Cycle After ovulation, estrogen & progesterone stimulate the maintenance of the lining and growth of endometrial glands that secrete nutrient fluid to sustain an embryo before implantation. The luteal phase of the ovarian cycle and the secretory phase of the uterine cycle are coordinated.

The Uterine Cycle : 

The Uterine Cycle If the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum disintegrates, and production of estrogen and progesterone drops sharply. This triggers breakdown of the endometrium – menstruation.

Male Reproductive System : 

Male Reproductive System In males, the principle sex hormones are androgens, including testosterone. Produced mainly by Leydig cells in the testes. Responsible for secondary sexual characteristics. Important determinants of behavior in vertebrates. Sex drive Aggression Calling in birds & frogs

Male Reproductive System : 

Male Reproductive System As in females, GnRH from the hypothalamus stimulates release of FSH and LH from the pituitary. FSH promotes spermatogenesis. LH stimulates Leydig cells to make testosterone.

Pregnancy : 

Pregnancy Conception, fertilization of the egg, occurs in the oviduct. Results in zygote. Cleavage, rapid mitotic divisions, starts after 24 hrs.

Pregnancy : 

Pregnancy After about a week, the ball of cells produced during cleavage develops a cavity and is now called a blastocyst. It then implants into the endometrium.

Pregnancy : 

Pregnancy The embryo secretes hormones including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) that act like LH to maintain secretion of progesterone and estrogen to maintain the lining of the uterus.

First Trimester : 

First Trimester For the first few weeks the embryo gets nutrients from the endometrium. The outer layer of the blastocyst – the trophoblast grows into the endometrium and forms the placenta.

Placental Circulation : 

Placental Circulation The placenta contains closely entwined embryonic & maternal blood vessels for the exchange of nutrients and wastes.

Hormone Levels : 

Hormone Levels hCG is produced by the placenta. Estrogen and progesterone are produced by the corpus luteum, then by the placenta.

First Trimester : 

First Trimester Organogenesis is occurring during the first trimester. The heart starts beating about the fourth week. At 8 weeks, all major organs are present in rudimentary form. Now called a fetus.

Second Trimester : 

Second Trimester The fetus grows to about 30 cm and is very active. Hormone levels stabilize, hCG declines, the corpus luteum disintegrates and the placenta takes over production of progesterone.

Third Trimester : 

Third Trimester Fetal activity may decrease as space becomes limited. Fetus grows to about 50 cm and 3-4 kg. Development of organs is completed. Neural development continues even after birth.

Labor & Delivery : 

Labor & Delivery Birth, parturition, occurs through strong rhythmic contractions of the uterus. Dilation Expulsion Delivery of placenta

Lactation : 

Lactation One defining characteristic of mammals is that we have mammary glands. After birth, progesterone levels fall stimulating the production of prolactin which stimulates milk production. The release of milk is controlled by oxytocin.

Multiple Births : 

Multiple Births Humans are usually uniparous – one offspring at a time. Multiparous animals have several. Fraternal twins result from ovulation & fertilization of two eggs. Identical twins result from the splitting of one zygote.

Human Development : 

Human Development