Week 5- Digital Citizenship Challenges

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Slide 2:

What We Are Doing Now

Social media and information overload Americans now consume three times the information they did in 1960. :

Social media and information overload Americans now consume three times the information they did in 1960.

The Societal Consequences Protecting Your Digital Health:

The Societal Consequences Protecting Your Digital Health Critical thinking Career and reputation Emotional & physical health Personal safety

Slide 5:

Critical Thinking – Digital Literacy

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbRYkriaJXM Rheingold is a visiting lecturer in Stanford University’s Department of Communication where he teaches two courses, "Digital Journalism" and "Virtual Communities and Social Media". He is a lecturer U.C. Berkley’s School of Information where he teaches "Virtual Communities and Social Media" and where he previously taught "Participatory Media/Collective Action".[4]:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbRYkriaJXM Rheingold is a visiting lecturer in Stanford University’s Department of Communication where he teaches two courses, "Digital Journalism" and "Virtual Communities and Social Media". He is a lecturer U.C. Berkley’s School of Information where he teaches "Virtual Communities and Social Media" and where he previously taught "Participatory Media/Collective Action". [4]

Critical Thinking Developing Healthy Internet Skepticism Baloney Detection Kit:

Critical Thinking Developing Healthy Internet Skepticism Baloney Detection Kit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUB4j0n2UDU http://www.michaelshermer.com/2001/11/baloney-detection/

What does your Online Reputation say about you? :

What does your Online Reputation say about you? http://www.microsoft.com/showcase/en/us/details/96179773-76fc-407f-b945-ae828f872ba7

Personal Safety Visit these sites at your own risk!:

Personal Safety Visit these sites at your own risk!

“Messing Around” A Gateway for Dangerous Behavior?:

“Messing Around” A Gateway for Dangerous Behavior?

Slide 11:

http://omegle.com/ http://www.chatroulette.com/

Social Health and Responsibility Cyber Bullying and Social Isolation:

Social Health and Responsibility Cyber Bullying and Social Isolation

How Social Media Is Helping Defeat Cyber Bullying :

How Social Media Is Helping Defeat Cyber Bullying With MTV launching Draw Your Line, a visualization tool that encourages young people to take action against digital abuse and share these actions and tips with others. The tool is part of A Thin Line, an organization dedicated to decreasing digital abuse and bullying, and protecting children and young adults from the dangers of an increasingly online world. Visit: http://www.athinline.org/drawyourline

“It's important to note that blaming technology for horrendous, violent displays of homophobia or racism or simple meanness lets adults like parents and teachers absolve themselves of the responsibility to raise kids free from these evils. “ ~ Anil Dash “There is a statistically significant weak positive relationship between home access to a computer or time spent online and whether or not students tease others.” Barbara Lacey, “Social aggression: A study of Internet harassment” “The authors fail to adequately summarize and analyze the data from the various studies, many of which appear on Internet web sites rather than in peer-reviewed journals. The few tables of data are uninformative and presented without statistical analysis.” The American Journal of Psychiatry Book Review of: Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age “The results show that almost 54% of the students were victims of traditional bullying and over a quarter of them had been cyber-bullied. Almost one in three students had bullied others in the traditional form, and almost 15% had bullied others using electronic communication tools. ” Qing L i, “New bottle but old wine: A research of cyberbullying in schools”:

“It's important to note that blaming technology for horrendous, violent displays of homophobia or racism or simple meanness lets adults like parents and teachers absolve themselves of the responsibility to raise kids free from these evils. “ ~ Anil Dash “There is a statistically significant weak positive relationship between home access to a computer or time spent online and whether or not students tease others.” Barbara Lacey, “ Social aggression: A study of Internet harassment” “ The authors fail to adequately summarize and analyze the data from the various studies, many of which appear on Internet web sites rather than in peer-reviewed journals. The few tables of data are uninformative and presented without statistical analysis.” The American Journal of Psychiatry Book Review of: Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age “ The results show that almost 54% of the students were victims of traditional bullying and over a quarter of them had been cyber-bullied. Almost one in three students had bullied others in the traditional form, and almost 15% had bullied others using electronic communication tools. ” Qing L i, “ New bottle but old wine: A research of cyberbullying in schools” Does Social Media Cause Bullying?

Can Anonymity Breed Irresponsibility The problem, say Formspring's critics, is the site offers a perfect haven for cyberbulllying. The recent suicide of 15-year-old Pheobe Prince has drawn attention to the problem of bullying in cyberspace because victims often have no idea who is tormenting them. A Boycott Formspring Group on Facebook claims almost 7,300 members. http://www.dailyfinance.com/story/media/do-you-know-who-your-children-are-online-formsprings-raunchy-f/19452194/?a_dgi=aolshare_email http://www.twloha.com/blog/some-thoughts-boycotting-formspring-in-1/ :

Can Anonymity Breed Irresponsibility The problem, say Formspring's critics, is the site offers a perfect haven for cyberbulllying . The recent suicide of 15-year-old Pheobe Prince has drawn attention to the problem of bullying in cyberspace because victims often have no idea who is tormenting them. A Boycott Formspring Group on Facebook claims almost 7,300 members. http://www.dailyfinance.com/story/media/do-you-know-who-your-children-are-online-formsprings-raunchy-f/19452194/?a_dgi=aolshare_email http://www.twloha.com/blog/some-thoughts-boycotting-formspring-in-1/

A Thoughtful Response http://www.facebook.com/notes/to-write-love-on-her-arms/some-thoughts-on-boycotting-formspring-in-response-to-the-suicide-of-alexis-pilk/373781774657 :

A Thoughtful Response http://www.facebook.com/notes/to-write-love-on-her-arms/some-thoughts-on-boycotting- formspring-in-response-to-the-suicide-of-alexis-pilk/37378177465 7

Cyberbullying What the research is telling us… Amanda Lenhart Youth Online Safety Working Group May 6, 2010 Washington, DC:

Cyberbullying What the research is telling us… Amanda Lenhart Youth Online Safety Working Group May 6, 2010 Washington, DC

Teen internet use basics:

May 2010 19 Teen internet use basics 93% of teens 12-17 go online 63% of online teens go online daily 89% of online teens go online from home, and most of them go online from home most often 77% of teen go online at school 71% go online from friends or relatives house 60% go online from a library 27% go online on their mobile phone 76% of households with teens go online via broadband, 10% via dial up, and 12% do not have access at home.

What are teens doing online?:

May 2010 20 What are teens doing online? 94% go online to do research for school assignments; 48% do so on a typical day. 81% go to websites about movies, TV shows, music groups, or sports stars 64% of online teens have created some kind of content online 62% go online to get news 57% have watched a video on a video-sharing site like YouTube or GoogleVideo 55% go online to get information about a college, university or other school that they are thinking about attending. 48% have bought something online like books, clothes or music 31% have looked online for health, dieting or physical fitness information; 17% have looked online for sensitive health information

How else are teens connecting?:

May 2010 21 How else are teens connecting? 75% of teens have a cell phone No gender or race/ethnic differences in ownership 50% of teens with phones talk to friends daily 54% of teens send text messages daily 27% use their phone to go online 73% of teens use an online social network site 37% of SNS users send messages through social networks daily 80% of teens have a game console 51% of teens have a portable gaming device Teens connect and interact with others online through games

Concerns in Online Safety Sphere:

May 2010 22 Concerns in Online Safety Sphere Inappropriate contact Strangers Bullies Inappropriate content Accidental Exposure Deliberate Exposure

Bullying:

May 2010 23 Bullying Olweus (1993) “ A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself." This definition includes three important components: 1. Bullying is aggressive behavior that involves unwanted, negative actions. 2. Bullying involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time 3. Bullying involves an imbalance of power or strength.” Bullying Physical Relational/Verbal -Internet

Online Harassment & Cyberbullying:

May 2010 24 Online Harassment & Cyberbullying Online harassment: aggressive behavior, “harm doing,” insults, denigration, impersonation, exclusion, outing, activities associated with hacking – stealing information, breaking into accounts, damaging websites, profiles etc. (Willard, 2006) Cyberbullying: online harassment that is repeated over time Involves a power imbalance between a perpetrator and a victim. Power imbalance may be differences in online skills. Other complicating factor -- perpetrators are also often victims, sometimes online, sometimes elsewhere. Internet bullying can be particularly hard to disentangle. (Willard, 2006)

What makes online harassment & bullying different?:

May 2010 25 What makes online harassment & bullying different? Technology is vehicle Persistence of content Editable, alterable Distributability of content Speed Breadth Dis-inhibition over computer-mediated communication Invasive

Pew Internet: Online Harassment:

May 2010 26 Pew Internet: Online Harassment 32% of online teens have experienced one of the following forms of online harassment: 15% of teens reported having private material (IM, txt, email) forwarded without permission 13% had received threatening messages 13% said someone had spread a rumor about them online 6% had someone post an embarrassing picture of them online without permission (Lenhart, 2007) 26% of teens have been harassed via their cell phones either by voice or text (Lenhart, 2010)

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Cyberbullying:

May 2010 28 Cyberbullying Other research shows prevalence of cyberbullying or online harassment between 9% and 33% of youth ages 10-18. (Wolak et al, 2007, Ybarra et al, 2007) Much of the difference is definitional and depends on how the question was asked. Specific activities often yield higher levels of response than blanket definitions. Mid-teens (ages 14-17) is the age of greatest prevalence of online harassment & bullying (Pew, 2007, Hinduja & Patchin, 2008) Perpetrators of online bullying (similar to offline bullying) are generally the same age as their victim. (Wolak, 2007)

Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds:

May 2010 29 Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds ( n =1,193) (Ybarra, 2009)

Online Harassment (2):

May 2010 30 Online Harassment (2) Girls, particularly older girls, report more online harassment; 38% of all online girls reported experiencing some type of harassment (Pew, 2007) Social network users are also more likely to report online harassment – 39% of SNS users have experience it. (Pew, 2007) But most teens (67%) think bullying & harassment happens more OFFLINE. (Pew, 2007)

Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds by environment:

May 2010 31 Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds by environment ( n =1,193) (Ybarra, 2009)

Online (or not) Harassment :

May 2010 32 Online (or not) Harassment School is by far the most common place youth report being bullied (31%) versus elsewhere (e.g., 13% online) The prevalence rate of Internet harassment (both perpetration and victimization) appears to be stable (2006-2008) . The majority (59%) of Internet harassment comes from other minors Youth who report being harassed online report a myriad of concurrent psychosocial problems offline, too Source: Michele Ybarra & colleagues work on the 2005 Youth Internet Safety Survey fielded by UNH CCRC & 2007-2008 Growing up with Media research funded by the CDC.

Why should we worry?:

May 2010 33 Why should we worry? Bullying is broadly associated with: School violence Delinquency Suicidal ideation Bullied teens (and often bullies themselves) have higher levels of: Depression and other psychological problems Substance abuse Delinquency / School avoidance Weapon-carrying Poor parent/caregiver relationships Offline victimization/sexual abuse/physical abuse

Why should we worry (2)?:

May 2010 34 Why should we worry (2)? Some research suggests that significant portions of teens aren’t bothered by online harassment or bullying Research suggests that 1/3 of teens (34%) are distressed by online harassment. (Wolak et al, 2007) Distressed = “Extremely or very upset or afraid” Teens who are high internet users are more likely to be distressed (Wolak, 2007)

Overlap of cyberbullying & internet victimization:

May 2010 35 Overlap of cyberbullying & internet victimization (Ybarra, 2010)

Differences between cyberbullying & internet harassment:

May 2010 36 Differences between cyberbullying & internet harassment Cyberbullying is not more common than Internet harassment On average (between 2007-2008): 37% were harassed, 14% were bullied online in the past year Cyberbullying is not more damaging than Internet harassment Among those cyberbullied, 15% report being very / extremely upset Among those harassed, between 17-34% report being very / extremely upset

Cell phone-based harassment:

May 2010 37 Cell phone-based harassment 75% of teens have cell phones 54% of all teens text message daily 26% have been harassed through their cell phone by voice calls or text messages 47% have sent a text message they regretted sending And then there’s sexting – which is generally not a form of harassment itself, but when the images are shared, can lead to harassment and bullying.

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Sending Sexts:

May 2010 39 Sending Sexts No difference by gender Oldest teens most likely to have sent 8% of 17 year olds 4% of 12 year olds 17% who pay for all the costs of the phone send sexts vs. 3% of others

Receiving Sexts:

May 2010 40 Receiving Sexts Again, no gender differences and increases by age 4% of 12 year olds 20% of 16 year olds 30% of 17 year olds Sending texts, having unlimited texting plan increases receipt

Sexting Scenarios:

May 2010 41 Sexting Scenarios Between two romantic partners, as a part of, instead of, or as a prelude to sex – never leaves couple Between two romantic partners – but shared with others Between two people where at least one would like to be in a relationship – shows interest

Element of coercion for some sexting:

May 2010 42 Element of coercion for some sexting “When I was about 14-15 years old, I received/sent these types of pictures. Boys usually ask for them or start that type of conversation. My boyfriend, or someone I really liked asked for them. And I felt like if I didn’t do it, they wouldn’t continue to talk to me. At the time, it was no big deal. But now looking back it was definitely inappropriate and over the line.” 17 year old girl