Grammar Book

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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book By: Ross Carlson

Table of Contents :

Table of Contents Refranes Ser y Estar Nacionalidades All stemchangers IYF Para + Para Expressions IOP + DOP Object Pronoun Placement Affirmative/Negative words - Isimos IOP + DOP + SE Reflexive Verbs Tu commands Adverbs Preterite A dverbs Past participles as adjectives Present progressive + irregulars M odal verbs Works cited

Refranes :

Refranes Soy quien soy. !Una sonrisa no cuesta nada para vale mucho! No todo la que brillesco . Barriguita llena, corazón contento. A buena hambre no hoy mal pan. No se hacen tortillas sin romper hueves. Escoba nueva bañe bien. Quien madruga duras le ayuda. !Ponte las pilas! Los muertos no hablan ni hacen ruidos.

Ser y Estar:

Ser y Estar Ser : to be Estar : to be Conjugation: Conjugation: D escription Lo cation O rigin Co ndition T ime

Nacionalidades:

Nacionalidades argentino boliviano chileno colombiano costarricense cubano ecuatoriano salvadoreño español guatemalteco hondureño mexicano nicaragüense panameño paraguayo peruano puertorriqueño dominicano uruguayo venezualo

All Stem Changers IYF:

All Stem Changers IYF O-UE E-IE E-I I-IE U-UE O-HUE

Para + Para Expressions:

Para + Para Expressions Para : for Expressions:

IOP + DOP:

IOP + DOP Indirect Object Pronouns- tell for what Direct Object Pronouns- tell what or who

Object Pronoun Placement :

Object Pronoun Placement For object pronoun placement, you place the object pronoun before the conjugated verb in the affirmative sentences. For infinitives and present participles you can place it at the end of the conjugated verb or before it. Examples : Yo te quiero . Yo me miro . Tu me quieres . Ramon lo lee.

Affirmative/Negative Words:

Affirmative/Negative Words algo something Alguien someone alguno any con with tambien also siempre always todavia still Nada nothing nadie No one ninguno none sin without tampoco neither nunca never ya already

Verbs like Gustar:

Verbs like Gustar Gustar - gustar is a verb that needs the use of an indirect object pronoun. Examples: Me gusta el beisbol . Nos gustan los libros . Subjectivo es nos El verbo es gustar Los libros son el IO

-Isimos:

- Isimos - Isimo : use isimos or isimas when using an ultimate word like super, very, biggest, etc. Examples : El pastel esta rico . El pastel esta riquisimo . El café esta caliente . El café esta calientisimo .

IOP + DOP + SE:

IOP + DOP + SE Me Nos Te Os Se Se Me Nos Te Os Le Les Me Nos Te Os Lo,La Los,Las Reflexive Pronouns Indirect Object Pronouns Direct Object Pronouns

Reflexive Verbs:

Reflexive Verbs The purpose of the reflexive verbs forms is to avoid saying who or what is performing the action, or simply to recognize that the performer of the action is not of great performance. Verb Yo Tu El, Ella Nosotros Vosotros Ellos , Ellas Lavarse Me lavo Te lavas Se lava Nos lavamos Se lavan Acostarse Me acuesto Te acuestas Se acuesta Nos acostmaos Se acuestan Ducharse Me ducho Te duchas Se ducha Nos duchamos Se duchan Maquillarse Me maquillo Te maquillas Se maquilla Nos maquillamos Se maquillan

Tu commands:

Tu commands Affirmative Tu Commands Infinitive: Ducharse Take off se: Duchar Usted form: Ducha Add pronoun: Duchate Add accent: Duchate Irregular Verbs Decir Di Hacer Haz Ir Ve Poner Pon Salir Sal Ser Se Tener Ten Vevir Ven Negative Tu Commands Verb: Hablar Yo form: Hablo Drop “o”, add es for ar verbs and as for ir / er verbs: Hables

Adverbios:

Adverbios Adjective Adverb Cuidadoso Cuidadosamnete Especial Especialmente Normal Normalmente Feliz Felizmnete Reciente Recientemente Frequente Frequentemnete Lento Tranquilamente Adverbs are words that describe or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. In Spanish, most adverbs are formed by adding – mente . This corresponds to the – ly rule in English.

Preterite :

Preterite The preterit tense of a verb is focused on describing what happened in a sentence. To change it correctly, put it in the “ yo ” form and drop the “o”. Then add the appropriate ending based on what’s in the chart. Pronoun Er / Ir verb ending Ar verb ending Yo i e Tu iste aste El, Ella, Usted io o Nosotros imos amos Vosotros isteis asteis Ellos , Ellas , Ustedes ieron aron

Past Participles as Adjectives:

Past Participles as Adjectives Past Particples always end in “o” so they will always either be masculine singular, masculine plural, female singular, and feminine plural. Form Example Masculine Singular El cuadro pintado . Masculine Plural Los cuadros pintados . Feminine Singular La habitacion pintada . Feminine Plural Las habitaciones pintadas . Past Participles as adjectives formed by taking off the last two letters of the infinitive and adding –ado for - ar verbs and – ido for – er and – ir verbs.

Present Progressive + Irregulars:

Present Progressive + Irregulars The present progressive is only used to describe an action in the process of taking place. Some verbs have a irregular present participle form. When the stem of an – er or- ir verbs end in a vowel, change the – iendo to – yendo to form the present participle. Verb Irregular Present Participle Leer Oir traer Leyendo Oyendo trayendo Pedir Servir Pidiendo Sirviendo Decir Dormir Venir Diciendo Durmiendo Viniendo

Modal Verbs:

Modal Verbs Conjugate and pair the modal verb with an infinitive to get a new meaning. Ir + a + infinitive (going to do something) Poder + infinitive (are able to do something) Querer + infinitive (want to do something) Deber + infinitive (should do something) Tener que + infinitive (to have to do something) Soler + infinitive (to be accustomed to)

Works Cited:

Works Cited http:// www.studyspanish.com/lessons/reflexive1.htm http:// spanish.about.com/cs/culture/a/nationalities.htm http:// www.spanishdict.com/topics/show/21 Senora Linares’ notes