Case Study Capacitor Bank at Distribution System

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Slide 1: 

Prepared by : Muhammad Hakim b Ab Rahman B010610076 Supervised by : Pn Nur Hakimah binti Ab Aziz Panel : 1. En . Aminudin b Aman 2. Pn. Elia Erwani binti Hassan Case Study On Capacitor Bank for Distribution System

Slide 2: 

Effect of low power factor Reactive power problem Decreasing losses in a distribution lines Minimize power factor penalty Problem Statements

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This lagging power factor has two costly disadvantages for the power user It increases the cost incurred by the power company because more current must be transmitted than is actually used to perform useful work. This increased cost is passed on to the industrial customer by means of power factor adjustments to rate schedules. (Losses, Power Factor Penalty & Loading) It reduces the load handling capability of the industrial plans electrical transmission system which means that the industrial power user must spend more on transmission lines and transformers to get a given amount of useful power through his plant. (Losses & Loading) Effect of Low Power Factor

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Condition 1 Power Factor = 0.99 Load kW= 18000 kW Voltage = 415 V P = VI cos Ѳ I = P = 18000kW = 43.81 Amp V cos Ѳ 415 x cos 8.1096 Condition 2 Power Factor = 0.7 Load kW= 18000 kW Voltage = 415 V P = VI cos Ѳ I = P = 18000kW = 61.958 Amp V cos Ѳ 415 x cos 45.57 Low Power Factor = Higher Current Reactive Power problem

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Objective To increase the power factor value To study load conditions with and without capacitor bank connected using ERACS and PSCAD To maintaining voltage from generation station, transmission lines and distribution system to the customer To study capacitor bank (sizing component) To study capacitor bank design ( Delta and Star)

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Scope Make an analitical study capacitor bank for distribution system at Fasa B, UTeM. Get the single line diagram for distribution system. Determine the capacitor unit, sizing of component , C/K parameter and fusing calculation.

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Project Methodology Literature Review Calculation Simulation Result & Discussion Technical Report & Presentation

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Literature review This method is to study the capacitor sizing, design, and protection. One simple single line diagram will be selected . Learn about the ERACS and PSCAD software to simulate the simple single line diagram. Check any sources of information from books, articles and internet. Calculation Calculate the load profiling, capacitor unit, sizing of component , C/K parameter and fusing calculation. Simulation Simulate the single line diagram into simulation using ERACS and PSCAD software. To analyze the load flow (with and without capacitor bank). Result and Discussion Compare the actual and simulation result in point view of the distribution system with and without capacitor bank.

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Literature Review Steps For Capacitor Sizing Load Profiling Single Line Diagram Capacitor Design Delta Design Star Design

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Single line diagram SSU FASA B, UTeM

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Delta and Star design Size of Capacitor Unit A+B+C = 3ø kVar kVar (3phase) = A+B+C = 2/3 x (Total 3 phase µf) x w x V²/1000 W = 2 x π x f f =50Hz V = voltage rating for capacitor Capacitor Design

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R – Y = 462 µf Y – B = 462 µf B – R = 462 µf = 2/3 x (Total 3 phase µf) x w x V²/1000 = 2/3 x (462 µf+ 462 µf+ 462 µf ) x (2 x 3.142 x50) x 415²/1000 = 50 kVar Size of Capacitor unit = 50 kVar

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Three Phase Capacitor banks Ic = kVar/(√3 x VLL) = 50 kVar/(√3 x 415) = 69.56 Amp Single Phase Capacitor banks Ic = kVar/(VLN) = 50 kVar/(415/√3) = 208.68 Amp Calculation of Capacitive Current

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Size of Capacitor Step Cable Rated size (Amp) x Capacitor current = 1.5 x Ic Ic = 69.56 Amp = 1.5 x 69.56 Amp = 104.34 Amp 2. Magnetic Contactor Rated size (Amp) x Capacitor current = 1.5 x Ic Ic = 69.56 Amp = 1.5 x 69.56 Amp = 104.34 Amp Sizing for components

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Fuse LinkRated size (Amp) x Capacitor current= 1.5 x Ic Ic = 69.56 Amp= 1.5 x 69.56 Amp = 104.34 Amp 4. Main Breaker1.35 x (Ic x all step)= 1.35 x (69.56 x 5) Ic = 69.56 Amp= 469.53 Amp

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Sizing for components

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Setting for the C/K parameter The C/K ratio is the ratio of the capacitor current for the first step and the current transformer (CT) ratio. C/K = Q (kVar) = Icap for the first step (1.732 x VLL x k) k k = CT ratio Icap per step = Q (kVar) (1.732 x VLL)

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Example Size of Capacitor Bank = 250kVar, Delta Voltage = 415V Number of step = 5 kVar value for each step = 50kVar Size of CT = 300/5 Calculation k = CT ratio = 300/5 = 60 VLL = phase to phase = 415V Icap per step = Q (kVar) = 50 kVar = 69.56 Amp (1.732 x VLL) (1.732 x 415V) C/K = Q (kVar) = Icap for the first step = 69.56 Amp (1.732 x VLL x k) k 60 = 1.159

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Delta 415V C/K Values

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Delta connected banks can be fused in two different arrangements. First an “ in line ” or “ group fuse ” method ( outside the delta) of the circuit. The second method uses “ branch ” or “ individual fusing ” ( inside the delta) of the circuit. Outside Delta Fusing Protection for Delta Capacitor

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Outside Delta fusing For smaller banks for example 3 phase capacitors (delta connected) and must be fused outside the delta. On small banks that have only one capacitor per phase, this should be the method of choice when the neutral of the capacitor banks is not grounded. Inside Delta fusing For bigger capacitor bank Units are placed in parallel, the in line fusing becomes large, and may not coordinate with the tank rupture curve of the capacitor and the upstream coordination may not be possible. Protection for Delta Capacitor

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Fusing calculation Capacitor 50 kVar, Delta 415V (16.6667 kVar per phase) Outside Delta fusing 50 kVar/(415V x √3) = 69.56 A x 1.5 = 104.34 Amp Inside Delta fusing 16.6667kVar/415V = 40.1607 x 1.5 = 60.24 Amp Protection for Delta Capacitor

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Result & Analysis Component loading Component losses Power factor 0.8 1.0 1.0

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Conclusion Analyze the load profiling Calculated the capacitive current, capacitor component and fusing for capacitor bank Analyze the distribution system with and without capacitor bank

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Reference 1) Medium Voltage Power Capacitor Banks and Accessories, No. 50, Sir Chittampalam A. Gardiner Mawatha, Colombo 2. Sri Lanka, CEYLON ELECTRICITY BOARD, CEB Standard 031: 1996 2) Medium and High Voltage Capacitor, Eaton MEM, Reddings Lane, Birmingham B11 3EZ - United Kingdom, July 2008 3) Medium Voltage Power Capacitor Banks and Accessories, CIRCUTOR, R8/9 4) Basic of Power Factor Correction, UPE, Inc.3401 Brecksville Rd. #110 Richfield, OH 44286, Oct 2007 capacitors 5) MSD Medium Voltage Capacitor, Electronicon Germany, Issues 2007 6) Engr. Mohamed Fuad B Faisal, Medium Voltage Capacitor Bank Design Electrical Engineering Technical Design, Electrical Engineering Technical Division, IEM. 7) Hadi Saadat, Power System Analisis, Second Edition, Mc Graw Hill.

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