Positioning3--a Complementary Approach


Presentation Description

Presentation defining Positioning and its role in brand and product management, types of/approaches to Positioning and the author's expanded, social science based approach to holistic positioning for brands, products, companies, etc.


By: VIJAY06OCT (144 month(s) ago)

Respected Sir, Undoubtedly one of the best presentations for describing the positioning as a vital component of marketing. However some more product examples for students from developing countries like India should be included. This is Prof.Vijay karmarkar from Sagar Institute of research and Technology ,Bhopal,India. Kindly confirm if you could allow me to download the presentation for the benefit of our students. Warm Regards.

By: sasnoop (147 month(s) ago)


Presentation Transcript


Positioning 3 Going Beyond Ries and Trout to Positively Differentiate Your Brand Presented at NorthWest Chapter of the Marketing Research Association Spring Educational Conference 14 March, 2009 Roger A. Straus, Ph.D. Presentation © 2009 Roger A. Straus


“ Positioning” We all talk about it Some gurus say it’s dead, old hat, so last Century… But If you don’t position your offering, the market will It links marketing practice with primary research It makes practical sense © 2009 Roger A. Straus, 2 Positioning

“Position” What?:

“Position” What? © 2009 Roger A. Straus 3 OFFERING ENTITY Product Company Service Other organization Brand Individual (political Product Line candidate) Positioning

“Positioning” Seems To Make Intuitive Sense :

“Positioning” Seems To Make Intuitive Sense Where offering fits relative to the competition Seems to imply a spatial metaphor … Something inherent, empirical even mechanical Often thought of as descriptive “market research” ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 4 Positioning

PowerPoint Presentation:

What Does That Have To Do With Market ing ? ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 5 Positioning

We’re Talking Customer-Driven Positioning:

We’re Talking Customer-Driven Positioning Relatively recent innovation, at least in some industries Not the classic kitchen-sink paragraph handed off to the advertising agency for creatives to implement A process, not (just) the tag line, catch phrase, elevator statement or statement of how you wish to be perceived…. ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 6 Product X is the right choice for all users and all occasions because it has yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada ydad yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yad , yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada yada etc…. Positioning

Al Ries And Jack Trout Introduced Concept:

Al Ries And Jack Trout Introduced Concept Positioning: The Battle For Your Mind ( 1982) Positioning is in the customer’s mind Cuts through the noise and defines you/your offering ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 7 Marc Julius Trip the customer and whisper your brand’s name. Whatever flashes through their mind before they hit the ground is the positioning for that customer . Positioning

PowerPoint Presentation:

© 2009 Roger A. Straus, 8 Positioning

Positioning Is Best Done Strategically And Proactively:

Positioning Is Best Done Strategically And Proactively ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 9 Marc Julius If you don’t position it, the market or the customer will… Positioning

PowerPoint Presentation:

© 2009 Roger A. Straus 10 Just another battery…. And ours is more trustworthy Positioning

Social Psychology Of Positioning:

Social Psychology Of Positioning ©2009 Roger A. Straus 11

Symbolic Interactionism:

Symbolic Interactionism Sociological social psychology Humans act according to what things mean for us, we don’t just “behave” or “respond” to stimuli We construct our worlds through our interactions with one another, in which we exchange and negotiate meanings in order to construct joint lines of action ©2009 Roger A. Straus 12 Social Psychology

Thomas Theorem:

Thomas Theorem ©2009 Roger A. Straus 13 What people define to be real is real in its consequences W.I. Thomas Social Psychology

Definition Of The Situation:

Definition Of The Situation How we have come to define the situation governs our actions, that our socially (and culturally) constructed meanings come between stimulus and response. ©2009 Roger A. Straus 14 Social Psychology

How Does This Apply To Marketing?:

How Does This Apply To Marketing? Marketing can be seen as a struggle to control the definition of the situation Positioning boils down to defining the meaning of an offering so as to positively differentiate it from the competition and drive preferential purchase, trial and use ©2009 Roger A. Straus 15 Too fattening Yummy and good for you Social Psychology

Naïve Positioning:

Na ï ve Positioning © 2009 Roger A. Straus 16

Naïve Positioning:

Naïve Positioning “Positioning” as a metaphor for where an offering fits in the customer’s mental space, where it goes on their mind map, so to speak. Using this as our operational definition, we can identify an offering’s positioning simply by having subjects map it onto competitive “space” © 2009 Roger A. Straus 17 Naive Positioning

Qualitative Process:

Qualitative Process Subject places offerings on a “map” Researcher may define axis or have subject do so Researcher probes “whys” Mainly done in UK, elsewhere ex-US ©2009 Roger A. Straus 18 Product Z Product Y Product X Naive Positioning

Purely Descriptive:

Purely Descriptive You get what subjects think as they choose to present it Analysis dependent on the analyst’s market knowledge and insight, skill at integrating and interpreting qualitative data points Provides relatively “shallow” insight But it is simple, cheap, clean and to-the-point Many suppliers and marketers like it If one employs a coordinate space could be done quantitatively (on the Web would benefit from using an interactive, Flash-based platform) ©2009 Roger A. Straus 19 Naive Positioning

Rational Positioning:

Rational Positioning © 2009 Roger A. Straus 20

Rational Positioning:

Rational Positioning Based on the specific differentiating attributes of an offering Essentially grounded in economists’ “rational choice” paradigm One adds up the positives, subtracts the negatives, then chooses the offering with the highest “utility score” as being in one’s best interest ©2009 Roger A. Straus 21 Rational Positioning

Quantitative Approach: Perceptual Mapping:

Quantitative Approach: Perceptual Mapping Vector-based Map Subject rates offerings on a range of attributes Software program converts into map Various statistical techniques Position of offering displayed relative to competition May show attributes as points or relative to vectors Axes may be labeled or not © 2009 Roger A. Straus 22 Rational Positioning

Marketers Love Perceptual Maps:

Marketers Love Perceptual Maps Clear, simple representation of where offerings fit relative to one another and to key attributes or dimensions Maps can be designed to show what is positively or negatively regarded and where offerings fall in that space (Quadrant Maps) Benefit of showing “revealed” vs. “explicit” patterns ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 23 Rational Positioning

Qualitative Approach: Positioning Story:

Qualitative Approach: Positioning Story Evokes a “positioning story” for client’s offering Commonly employed in the U.S., at least within the healthcare/pharmaceutical and related markets Usually conducted as primary research with customers and, possibly, other stakeholders Usually done through individual interviews May build on internal marketing team judgment and/or the outcomes from prior market research ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 24 Rational Positioning

Typical Exercise:

“” Positioning Headline (catchphrase, theme) such as “the longest lasting battery” Often considered the “positioning” The meaning or definition of the situation marketer seeks to drive into the minds of prospective customers Idea, not “copy” (avoid hyperbole, “Madison Avenue” speak) Key Supports (reasons to believe) Can be features (“something in it that fizzles”), data, charts, technical or scientific rationale Build the case, make Headline credible and compelling May or may not be referenced in marketing communications Key benefit(s) Not just features What it means for the decision maker, end user, etc. “So what?” (e.g., ““Your electronic devices will run for longer than they would with any other battery” or “you won’t unexpectedly run out of power.” © 2009 Roger A. Straus, 25 BASIC POSITIONING TEMPLATE Product X is the _________________ Because: ___________ ___________ ___________ So that: _________________ Typical Exercise Rational Positioning

Typical Process:

Typical Process Enlist subject as “consultant” Show several prepared headline options, get subject to choose (or do at end) Then show deck of possible supports, get subject to choose up to 3 or 4 Now show benefits statements, get subject to select 1-2 Variations Show full deck of messages, subject sort into categories Show “blocks” with all 3 elements let subjects choose (also adaptable for quantitative testing) If no team consensus can work backward – start with supports and benefits, then have subject choose headline Can also do in groups or minigroups ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 26 Rational Positioning

Most Positioning Work Stops Here:

Most Positioning Work Stops Here Marketers go on to work with internal units or outside agencies to construct ads, other promotional communications embodying positioning © 2009 Roger A. Straus, 27 Rational Positioning

Affective Positioning:

Affective Positioning © 2009 Roger A. Straus 28

“Rational” = Tip Of The Iceberg:

“ Rational” = Tip Of The Iceberg Offerings are positioned not only rationally but emotionally as well For one thing, brands, products, companies, etc. conjure up non-rational responses Some physical (“gut feelings,” tensions, and so forth) Some that are better described as “pure affect” Emotion is a combination of both ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 29 Affective Positioning

Three Iconic Brands…:

Three Iconic Brands… Our responses are due to their affective positioning…. ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 30 Affective Positioning

Twofold Objective…:

Twofold Objective… “Program” market to associate offering with feelings that fit the overall brand strategy Literally make brand “feel” more desirable, more like the ideal offering than do competitors “Below the belt” or “gut positioning” Get customer to feel about your offering in a way that channels their behavior as you desire in a way that seems “only natural,” spontaneous or automatic In other words, define an emotional “meaning” for brand or offering (“feeling rules” to be technical) © 2009 Roger A. Straus, 31 Affective Positioning


How? Less well-defined or developed than rational positioning I have developed proprietary feelings-based positioning methodologies for two major healthcare consultancies TVG, Inc. Adelphi Research by Design © 2009 Roger A. Straus, 32 Affective Positioning

Step One: Affect Profiling:

Step One: Affect Profiling Personification Which of these feels most like X? Why? Collaging, color association, emotions scales, etc. Can use more than one technique to maximize insight ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 33 If you were at a party and X walks into the room, what actor or actress/animal/thing would it be? Affective Positioning

Step Two: Proactive Positioning:

Step Two: Proactive Positioning One widely used method is laddering Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Get at underlying needs to be met Define offering as meeting those needs In words In imagery, tone, etc. ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 34 Affective Positioning

Step Two: Socio-Cognitive Approach:

Step Two: Socio-Cognitive Approach Get affective profiling for competitors, idealized or next-generation offering, other comparators Determine how best to shift current Affect Profile or create Affective Positioning Strategy Differentiate Make it feel more like the Ideal ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 35 KEY PRINCIPLE: Nothing can be understood until difference and distinctions are invoked Gregory Bateson, Mind and Nature Affective Positioning

Straus Approach: Triangulation:

Straus Approach: Triangulation Make it feel more like the ideal than competition, Which aspects to highlight or strengthen (any current positives) Feelings that would make it seem more like the ideal Feelings to mute or downplay (any negatives, positives where competition is stronger) © Roger A. Straus, 36 X IDEAL Y Affective Positioning


Triangulation… With this in mind, can adapt virtually any projective technique or emotional/feelings scales Identify where to “place” the product in this hypothetical emotional space in order to make it feel more like the ideal than does the competition Which aspects to highlight or strengthen (any current positives, any feelings that would make it seem more like the ideal) Which to mute or downplay (any negatives, or areas where the competition is stronger) Strategies and tactics to create the desired feeling states in association with offering ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 37 X IDEAL Y Affective Positioning

Relational Positioning:

Relational Positioning © 2009 Roger A. Straus, 38

How customer relates to offering:

How customer relates to offering Least developed dimension What is their relationship with it? How are customer and offering connected? What is the relevance of the offering for customer? ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 39 Relational Positioning

Why social dimension?:

I’m a sociologist…. Insight into how customer relates to offering Perceived or imputed relationship can channel behavior Also affects feelings, emotions Why social dimension? ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 40 Relational Positioning What do you want offering to be like for market?

Illustratory Methods:

Illustratory Methods Key: metaphors for relationship “Guided daydreaming” Imaginary screen Offering walks on screen Fill in details of character’s life, likes, etc. What would relationship be like with subject? Icons game Create avatar for offering, probe relationship , choose smiley, etc. Place icons on “stage” probe relationship Probe whys, meanings © 2009 Roger A. Straus, 41 Self X Competitor Ideal Relational Positioning

Example of output:

Example of output Working on novel anti-coagulant drug Late-middle-aged orthopedist envisions gorgeous, intelligent young woman in a bikini, perfectly poised in a canoe, paddling flawlessly, effortlessly gliding across the water Really telling me he would abandon his “old reliable” drug for the new product, which he viewed as almost perfect, something he’d “marry.” ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 42 “She’s my second wife – oh, um, I didn’t mean it like that, I’m happily married to my first wife… I don’t know why I said that.” Relational Positioning


Benefits By getting at imagined relationship, analyst can provide further direction regarding how to position the brand or product or company in relation to the customer. “Mine” what subject comes up with to provide insight Visual and verbal metaphors to employ in promotional communication Kinds of words, images, layouts and so forth that would help to foster the optimal (imagined or felt) relationship with that offering to differentiate it from the competition, it seem more like the ideal. ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 43 Relational Positioning

Wrap Up:

Wrap Up © 2009 Roger A. Straus, 44


Positioning 3 New, expanded complementary approach to product, brand and company positioning © 2009 Roger A. Straus, 45 Rational Affective Relational Wrap Up


Positioning 3 Elicit offering’s current or “natural” positioning in each of these dimensions and its optimal positioning in each Evaluate best 3-dimensional approach to defining the meaning of the client’s offering in the minds of prospective customers, decision makers and end-users Benefit: we can do a much more effective job of defining the situation with regard to brands, products and companies so as to help channel market behavior ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 46 Wrap Up

PowerPoint Presentation:

For a copy of presentation /text version, or for more information contact: Roger A. Straus, Ph.D. Marketing Research and Consulting [email protected] 503-974-9922 ©2009 Roger A. Straus, 47