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Principles of the New English Translation of the Mass of the Roman Rite

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The “New” Roman Missal:

The “New” Roman Missal Why and When?

Why is there a need for a new translation?:

Why is there a need for a new translation? The Missale Romanum ( Roman Missal ), the ritual text for the celebration of the Mass, was promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1970 as the definitive text of the reformed liturgy of the Second Vatican Council. That Latin text, the editio typica (typical edition), was translated into various languages for use around the world; the English edition was published in the United States in 1973.

Why is there a need for a new translation?:

The Holy See issued a revised text, the editio typica altera , in 1975. Pope John Paul II promulgated the third edition ( editio typica tertia ) of the Missale Romanum during the Jubilee Year in 2000. Among other things, the third edition contains: prayers for the celebration of recently canonized saints, additional prefaces for the Eucharistic Prayers, additional Masses and Prayers for Various Needs and Intentions, and some updated and revised rubrics (instructions) for the celebration of the Mass. Why is there a need for a new translation?

Why is there a need for a new translation?:

Why is there a need for a new translation? To aid the process of translation of the Missale Romanum , editio typica tertia , the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments issued Liturgiam Authenticam , in 2001, an Instruction on the vernacular translation of the Roman Liturgy which outlines the principles and rules for translation. In 2007, the Congregation for Divine Worship issued the Ratio Translationis for the English Language , which outlined the specific rules for translation in English.

Who is doing the work of translation?:

The process of translation is a highly consultative work of several groups. The International Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL) is chartered to prepare English translations of liturgical texts on behalf of the conferences of bishops of English–speaking countries. Currently 11 conferences of bishops are full members of the Commission: the United States, Australia, Canada, England and Wales, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Scotland, and South Africa. The USCCB and the other member Conferences of Bishops receive draft translations of each text from ICEL (called “Green Books”) and have the opportunity to offer comments and suggestions to ICEL. A second draft (called the “Gray Book”) is proposed, which each Conference of Bishops approves (a Conference reserves the right to amend or modify a particular text) and submits to the Vatican for final approval. Who is doing the work of translation?

Who is doing the work of translation?:

At the level of the Vatican (the Holy See), the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments examines texts and offers authoritative approval ( recognitio ) of texts and grants permission for their use. Currently the Congregation is aided by the recommendations of Vox Clara , a special committee of bishops and consultants from English–speaking countries convened to assist with the English translation of the Missale Romanum . Who is doing the work of translation?

What’s new or particularly different about the revised translation?:

From the Ratio Translationis comes this explanation: The unique style of the Roman Rite should be maintained in translation. By “style” is meant here the distinctive way in which the prayers of the Roman Rite are expressed. The principal elements of such a style include a certain conciseness in addressing, praising and entreating God, as well as distinctive syntactical patterns, a noble tone, a variety of less complex rhetorical devices, concreteness of images, repetition, parallelism and rhythm as measured through the cursus , or ancient standards for stressing syllables of Latin words in prose or poetry. (no. 112) What’s new or particularly different about the revised translation?

What’s new or particularly different about the revised translation?:

The texts of the revised translation of the Roman Missal are marked by a heightened style of English speech and a grammatical structure that closely follows the Latin text. In addition, many biblical and poetic images, such as “Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof…” (Communion Rite) and “…from the rising of the sun to its setting” (Eucharistic Prayer III) have been restored. What’s new or particularly different about the revised translation?

What is the timeline for the completion of the Missal?:

After the Missale Romanum was published in Latin in 2002, ICEL began its work of preparing a draft English translation of the text. In order to better manage the task, the Missal was divided into 12 smaller sections. A draft of the first section, the Order of Mass , containing the fixed prayers of the Mass, including the people’s parts, was presented to the conferences of Bishops in 2004. The final version was approved by the USCCB in 2006, and was confirmed by the Holy See in June, 2008. What is the timeline for the completion of the Missal ?

What is the timeline for the completion of the Missal?:

The first “Green Books” of the remaining sections were presented gradually in 2006 and 2007, and the second “Gray Books” were presented in 2007 and 2008. Each Conference of Bishops established a schedule for review and vote on the various sections. The USCCB approved the Proper of Seasons in November, 2008. Four sections were approved in July 2009, and the remaining sections were approved in November, 2009. The recognitio (approval) of the complete text by the Holy See was granted in 2010. What is the timeline for the completion of the Missal ?

When will the new Missal be implemented for liturgical use?:

The text of the Order of Mass (confirmed by the Holy See in June, 2008) was released as a text for study and formation, but was not intended for liturgical use; that is to say it could not be used in the celebration of the Mass. The intention of the Congregation for Divine Worship and of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops was to enable and encourage a process of preparation and catechesis for both priests and the faithful, as well as to make the texts available to composers of liturgical music who could begin to set the texts, especially the acclamations, to music in anticipation of the implementation of the texts for liturgical use. When will the new Missal be implemented for liturgical use?

When will the new Missal be implemented for liturgical use?:

It is hoped that when the time comes to use the texts in the celebration of the Mass: priests will be properly trained, the faithful will have an understanding and appreciation of what is being prayed, and musical settings of the liturgical texts will be readily available. The revised translation of the Order of Mass is not permitted in the U.S. until the First Sunday of Advent, 2011. When will the new Missal be implemented for liturgical use?

Four Theological Premises:

The celebration of the Eucharist is first of all Christo -centric. Every celebration of the Eucharist requires a Bishop or his priest. Participation of the faithful is the goal to be considered before all others. The Eucharist is the Source and Summit of Christian life. ( Sacrosanctum Concilium , Ch. 2) Four Theological Premises

The Celebration of the Eucharist is first of all Christo-centric:

In God’s plan, it is not man who is the center of the universe; but Jesus Christ, the Incarnate Word. (Jn 1:1-5) God created all things for Christ. For the sake of Christ Jesus, God decided to create man and the universe. In Him, through Him, and for Him, we are pleasing to the heavenly Father. Without Christ we are nothing. The Celebration of the Eucharist is first of all Christo -centric

The Celebration of the Eucharist is first of all Christo-centric:

This is the key to understanding the Mass. Our unworthy and imperfect sacrifices are of value only when they are united with Christ’s perfect Sacrifice. The Celebration of the Eucharist is first of all Christo -centric

The Celebration of the Eucharist is first of all Christo-centric:

The Mass is the means whereby we may become the members of the mystical Body of Christ ( mystici corporis ) . Through the offering of ourselves with Christ. Through the consecration of ourselves through Christ. Through the communion in Christ All to the greater glory of the Most Holy Trinity and the sanctification of our souls! The Celebration of the Eucharist is first of all Christo -centric

The Celebration of the Eucharist is first of all Christo-centric:

The purpose of Mass, therefore, is: Adoration …recognition of the Supreme Majesty; we honor God by God Himself, namely by Jesus Christ. Thanksgiving …Jesus thanks the Creator with infinite perfection for all His heavenly and earthly blessings. Atonement …for forgiveness of daily sins and of temporal punishment due for mortal sins that are already forgiven. Petition …(prayer) it is Jesus who is praying for us and Jesus’ prayers are always heard. The Celebration of the Eucharist is first of all Christo -centric

Participation of the faithful is the goal to be considered before all others :

“It is very much the wish of the Church that all the faithful should be led to take that full, conscious, and active part in liturgical celebrations which is demanded by the very nature of the liturgy, and which the Christian people, “a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people” (1 Pt 2:9,4-5) have a right and to which they are bound by reason of their Baptism.” ( SC , 14) Participation of the faithful is the goal to be considered before all others

Profoundly Internal with External Manifestations:

Participatio actuosa Doctrinal preparation Reading Listening to Word of God Study of dogmatic truths of the faith: the Trinity, the Incarnation, Redemption, grace, glory Liturgical preparation Study and understanding of the ceremonial of the Mass Ascetic preparation (preparation of heart and will) The most important preparation…to be conformed to Christ. Profoundly Internal with External Manifestations

Profoundly Internal with External Manifestations:

GIRM 42: “A common posture, to be observed by all participants, is a sign of the unity of the members of the Christian community gathered for the sacred Liturgy: it both expresses and fosters the intention and spiritual attitude of the participants .” Profoundly Internal with External Manifestations

Sacramentality:

Isn’t this ultimately the very definition of a sacrament? “The sacraments, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, are efficacious signs of grace perceptible to the senses. Through them divine life is bestowed upon us” ( CCCC , #224) An external manifestation of an internal spiritual reality…something which is not sensually discernible. Sacramentality

The Action of Christ:

“In the liturgy of the Church, it is his own paschal mystery that Christ signifies and makes present. By giving the Holy Spirit to his apostles he entrusted to them and their successors the power to make present the work of salvation through the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments, in which he himself acts to communicate his grace to the faithful of all times and places throughout the world” ( CCCC , #222). The Action of Christ

Participation of the Faithful:

“The Church on earth celebrates the liturgy as a priestly people in which each one acts according to his proper function in the unity of the Holy Spirit. The baptized offer themselves in a spiritual sacrifice ; the ordained ministers celebrate according to the Order they received for the service of all the members of the Church; the bishops and priests act in the Person of Christ the Head ( in persona Christi capitis ) of the Church.” (CCCC, #235) Participation of the Faithful

Profoundly Internal with External Manifestations:

And so, the most “active participation of the faithful” is the “making of them a holy temple of the Lord, a dwelling-place for God in the Spirit (see Eph 2:21-22), to the mature measure of the fullness of Christ (see Eph 4:13)” ( Sacrosanctum Concilium , #2). Profoundly Internal with External Manifestations

Lex Orandi, Lex Credendi:

“The sacraments not only presuppose faith but with the words and ritual elements they nourish, strengthen, and express it. By celebrating the sacraments, the Church professes the faith that comes from the apostles. This explains the origin of the ancient saying, ‘ lex orandi , lex credendi ,’ that is, the Church believes as she prays.” ( CCCC , #228) Lex Orandi , Lex Credendi

Case In Point…”Et cum spiritu tuo”:

Case In Point…”Et cum spiritu tuo ” Present Text New Text Priest: The Lord be with you. People: And also with you. Priest: The Lord be with you. People: And with your spirit.

In Persona Christi Capitis:

The priest at Mass is not acting as himself He acts in persona Christi capitis In the person of Christ the Head So that Christ Himself, “his own paschal mystery that Christ signifies and makes present” ( CCCC , #222) in every liturgical act of the Church The priest acts in persona Christi capitis not on his own initiative; not because he has been baptized. The priest acts in persona Chrisi capitis because of the invocation of the Holy Spirit upon him (ordination) by which he is “configured to Christ…set apart for divine worship and the service of the Church.” ( CCCC , #227) In Persona Christi Capitis

In Persona Christi Capitis:

The Mass is not a dialogue between Bob Knippenberg (or any other priest) and the people: “The Lord be with you”; “And also with you” It is a dialogue between Christ, the Head of the Church, and the baptized faithful, His mystical Body. When the people respond “And with your spirit” it is a recognition of the Spirit received by the priest at his ordination that makes it possible for the absent Christ (reigning in glory at the right hand of the Father) to be present with His people in all space and all time. In Persona Christi Capitis

In Persona Christi Capitis:

It is a recognition that Christ is celebrating the Mass; offering eternally the paschal mystery by which we and all of creation is saved. It is a recognition that we stand at the foot of the Cross on Calvary whenever Holy Mass is celebrated. This deep and intense spiritual meaning of what the Mass is and Who is actually offering it that can get lost if “ Et cum spiritu tuo ” is translated “And also with you” rather than more faithfully and accurately as “And also with your spirit.” The new translation better applies the principle lex orandi , lex credendi . In Persona Christi Capitis