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Underlying causes of world war : 

Underlying causes of world war

Slide 3: 

The first world war began in August 1914. It was directly triggered by the assassination of the Austrian archduke, Franz Ferdinand and his wife, on 28th June 1914 by Bosnian revolutionary, Gavrilo Princip.

Slide 4: 

Alliances An alliance is an agreement made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed. When an alliance is signed, those countries become known as Allies. A number of alliances had been signed by countries between the years 1879 and 1914. These were important because they meant that some countries had no option but to declare war if one of their allies. declared war first.

Imperialism : 

Imperialism Imperialism is when a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule. By 1900 the British Empire extended over five continents and France had control of large areas of Africa . With the rise of industrialism countries needed new markets.

Militarism : 

Militarism Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government. The growing European divide had led to an arms race between the main countries. The armies of both France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and there was fierce competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas.

Nationalism : 

Nationalism Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one's country. The Congress of Vienna, held after Napoleon's exile to Elba, aimed to sort out problems in Europe . Delegates from Britain , Austria , Prussia and Russia (the winning allies) decided upon a new Europe that left both Germany and Italy as divided states. Strong nationalist elements led to the re-unification of Italy in 1861 and Germany in 1871.

Crisis : 


Moroccan Crisis : 

Moroccan Crisis In 1904 Morocco had been given to France by Britain , but the Moroccans wanted their independence. In 1905, Germany announced her support for Moroccan independence. War was narrowly avoided by a conference which allowed France to retain possession of Morocco .

Bosnian Crisis : 

Bosnian Crisis In 1908, Austria-Hungary took over the former Turkish province of Bosnia . This angered Serbians who felt the province should be theirs. Serbia threatened Austria-Hungary with war, Russia , allied to Serbia , and mobilized its forces. Germany , allied to Austria-Hungary mobilized its forces and prepared to threaten Russia . War was avoided when Russia backed down.

Immediate Cause of the War (June 1914 ) : 

Immediate Cause of the War (June 1914 ) The First World War finally broke out in the second half of 1914 because of an ‘accident’ in Bosnia . Sarajevo Assassination Outbreak of War - July/August 1914

The Assassination of Francis Ferdinand at Sarajevo (June 1914) : 

The Assassination of Francis Ferdinand at Sarajevo (June 1914)

The Assassination of Francis Ferdinand at Sarajevo (June 1914) : 

The Assassination of Francis Ferdinand at Sarajevo (June 1914) The final event which led to the outbreak of the First World War took place on June 28, 1914. On that day, the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, and his wife were shot dead by a young Serbian nationalist of the Black Hand at Sarajevo , the Bosnian capital .

Why assassinate the Archduke? : 

Why assassinate the Archduke? The Serbian Black Hand had to assassinate Archduke Ferdinand because he wanted to convert the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (the Dual Monarchy) into a Triple Monarchy by the inclusion of Serbia . Although the Serbs might gain a certain degree of autonomy within the Triple Monarchy, their long cherished wish of creating a united Serbian state would be dashed to the ground.

Austrian intention to destroy Serbia : 

Austrian intention to destroy Serbia Austria considered the murder of the heir to the throne an open Serbian attack on the existence of the Dual Monarchy because if Francis Joseph died Austria would be left without an heir. Although she could not find any evidence that the Serbian government was connected with the assassination.

German support : 

German support The German Kaiser decided to support Austria because he regarded Austria as the only ally of Germany and because he believed that the Russian Czar would not come to help Serbia in a war involving the death of a future monarch. On July 6, Germany assured Austria that should there be an Austro-Serbian war, Germany would stand by her (Austrian) side and give her unlimited support as an ally. This was called the "Blank Cheque".

Ultimatum to Serbia : 

Ultimatum to Serbia Having received the wholehearted support from Germany , Austria sent an ultimatum to Serbia on July 23, 1914. The ultimatum was to be answered within 48 hours. It included the following demands: Serbia was to suppress all anti-Austrian (and Pan-Slav) publications, societies and propaganda. Serbia was to dismiss all anti-Austrian officials objected by Austria .

Serbian reply : 

Serbian reply These demands infringed Serbian sovereignty. Austria expected that Serbia would reject, thus giving her the excuse to declare war. Serbia accepted the first two demands but rejected the third. Serbia suggested to submit it for arbitration by the Hague Tribunal. William II was satisfied with the Serbian reply and did not feel the need to punish Serbia with a war. He declared, "a brilliant diplomatic triumph, no excuse for war."

Outbreak of War – July 1914 : 

Outbreak of War – July 1914

War declared : 

War declared Austria was still determined to destroy Serbia . After declaring the Serbian reply unsatisfactory, the Austrian government declared war on July 28. The bombardment of Belgrade began on July 29.

Russian mobilization : 

Russian mobilization The Serbian ally, Russia , learnt of the ultimatum on July 24. On July 26 the Czar reassured the Serbian crown prince that " Russia will in no case be indifferent to the fate of Serbia ." Russia certainly could not bear humiliations from Germany any more; if she failed to defend Serbia again and again, Russia could no longer set her foot on the Balkans as the leader of the Slav nations.

German declaration of war : 

German declaration of war Germany feared that she would face attacks from both Russia and France . Germany demanded Russia to stop her mobilization at once. Russia refused. Germany at once declared war on Russia on August 1.

Schlieffen War Plan : 

Schlieffen War Plan This was the war plan for Germany during the First World War. After the formation of the Dual Alliance between Russia and France in 1893, Germany feared attack on two fronts-- France in the west and Russia in the east. The Chief of the German General Staff, Count Schlieffen drew up his military plan on the theory that Russia would need at least six weeks to mobilize before she could be ready to attack.

Britain joined the war : 

Britain joined the war On August 4, according to the Schlieffen Plan, the German troops crossed the Belgian frontier. On the same day the British government declared war on Germany . There were two reasons which prompted Britain to take action at once. First: German invasion of Belgium had aroused British opinion against Germany because the country had been guaranteed as a neutral state by all great powers in 1839 in the Treaty of London. Second: no British government would tolerate the domination of Belgium by any powerful continental nation because it directly endangered the security of Britain .

Slide 26: 

By 1910 most of the major states of Europe belonged to one or the other of these great opposing alliances: the Central Powers, whose principal members were Germany and Austria-Hungary. the Allies, composed of France , Russia , and Great Britain . This bipolar system had a destabilizing effect, since conflict between any two members of opposing blocs carried the threat of general war. Eventually, a dispute between Russia and Austria-Hungary in 1914 quickly drew their fellow bloc members into the general conflict that became known as World War I (1914–18).

Triple Alliance : 

Triple Alliance the alliance formed from Germany , Austria-Hungary and Italy

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