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Local Anesthetics- History:

Local Anesthetics- History 1860 - cocaine isolated from erythroxylum coca Koller - 1884 uses cocaine for topical anesthesia Halsted - 1885 performs peripheral nerve block with local Bier - 1899 first spinal anesthetic

Local Anesthetics - Definition:

Local Anesthetics - Definition A substance which reversibly inhibits nerve conduction when applied directly to tissues at non-toxic concentrations

Local anesthetics - Mechanism:

Local anesthetics - Mechanism Limit influx of sodium, thereby limiting propagation of the action potential.

Local Anesthetics - Classes:

Local Anesthetics - Classes Esters

Local anesthetics - Classes (Rule of “i’s”):

Local anesthetics - Classes (Rule of “i’s”) Esters Cocaine Chloroprocaine Procaine Tetracaine Am”i”des Bup i vacaine L i docaine Rop i vacaine Et i docaine Mep i vacaine

Local anesthetics - Formulation:

Local anesthetics - Formulation Biologically active substances are frequently administered as very dilute solutions which can be expressed as parts of active drug per 100 parts of solution (grams percent) Ex.: 2% solution = _ 2 grams __ = _ 2000 mg _ = __ 20 mg __ 100 cc’s 100 cc’s 1 cc

Local Anesthetics - Allergy:

Local Anesthetics - Allergy True allergy is very rare Most reactions are from ester class - ester hydrolysis (normal metabolism) leads to formation of PABA - like compounds Patient reports of “allergy” are frequently due to previous intravascular injections

Local Anesthetics - Toxicity:

Local Anesthetics - Toxicity Tissue toxicity - Rare Can occur if administered in high enough concentrations (greater than those used clinically) Usually related to preservatives added to solution Systemic toxicity - Rare Related to blood level of drug secondary to absorption from site of injection. Range from lightheadedness, tinnitus to seizures and CNS/cardiovascular collapse

Local anesthetics - Duration:

Local anesthetics - Duration Determined by rate of elimination of agent from site injected Factors include lipid solubility, dose given, blood flow at site, addition of vasoconstrictors (does not reliably prolong all agents) Some techniques allow multiple injections over time to increase duration, e.g. epidural catheter

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Local anesthetics - vasoconstrictors:

Local anesthetics - vasoconstrictors Ratios Epinephrine is added to local anesthetics in extremely dilute concentrations, best expressed as a ratio of grams of drug:total cc’s of solution. Expressed numerically, a 1:1000 preparation of epinephrine would be 1 gram epi 1000 cc’s solution 1000 mg epi 1000cc’s solution = 1 mg epi 1 cc =

Local anesthetics - vasoconstrictors:

Local anesthetics - vasoconstrictors Therefore, a 1 : 200,000 solution of epinephrine would be 1 gram epi 200,000 cc’s solution = 1000 mg epi 200,000 cc’s solution or 5 mcg epi 1 cc solution

Local anesthetics - vasoconstrictors:

Local anesthetics - vasoconstrictors Vasoconstrictors should not be used in the following locations Fingers Toes Nose Ear lobes Penis



Regional anesthesia - Definition:

Regional anesthesia - Definition Rendering a specific area of the body, e.g. foot, arm, lower extremities, insensate to stimulus of surgery or other instrumentation

Regional anesthesia - Uses:

Regional anesthesia - Uses Provide anesthesia for a surgical procedure Provide analgesia post-operatively or during labor and delivery Diagnosis or therapy for patients with chronic pain syndromes

Regional anesthesia - types:

Regional anesthesia - types Topical Local/Field Intravenous block (“Bier” block) Peripheral (named) nerve, e.g. radial n. Plexus - brachial, lumbar Central neuraxial - epidural, spinal

Topical Anesthesia:

Topical Anesthesia Application of local anesthetic to mucous membrane - cornea, nasal/oral mucosa Uses : awake oral, nasal intubation, superficial surgical procedure Advantages : technically easy minimal equipment Disadvantages : potential for large doses leading to toxicity

Local/Field Anesthesia:

Local/Field Anesthesia Application of local subcutaneously to anesthetize distal nerve endings Uses: Suturing, minor superficial surgery, line placement, more extensive surgery with sedation Advantages: minimal equipment, technically easy, rapid onset Disadvantages: potential for toxicity if large field

IV Block - “Bier” block:

IV Block - “Bier” block Injection of local anesthetic intravenously for anesthesia of an extremity Uses any surgical procedure on an extremity Advantages: technically simple, minimal equipment, rapid onset Disadvantages: duration limited by tolerance of tourniquet pain, toxicity

Peripheral nerve block:

Peripheral nerve block Injecting local anesthetic near the course of a named nerve Uses: Surgical procedures in the distribution of the blocked nerve Advantages: relatively small dose of local anesthetic to cover large area; rapid onset Disadvantages: technical complexity, neuropathy

Plexus Blockade:

Plexus Blockade Injection of local anesthetic adjacent to a plexus, e.g cervical, brachial or lumbar plexus Uses : surgical anesthesia or post-operative analgesia in the distribution of the plexus Advantages: large area of anesthesia with relatively large dose of agent Disadvantages: technically complex, potential for toxicity and neuropathy.

Central neuraxial blockade - “Spinal”:

Central neuraxial blockade - “Spinal” Injection of local anesthetic into CSF Uses: profound anesthesia of lower abdomen and extremities Advantages: technically easy (LP technique), high success rate, rapid onset Disadvantages: “high spinal”, hypotension due to sympathetic block, post dural puncture headache.

Central Neuraxial Blockade - “epidural”:

Central Neuraxial Blockade - “epidural” Injection of local anesthetic in to the epidural space at any level of the spinal column Uses: Anesthesia/analgesia of the thorax, abdomen, lower extremities Advantages: Controlled onset of blockade, long duration when catheter is placed, post-operative analgesia. Disadvantages: Technically complex, toxicity, “spinal headache”

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