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What is Research? An introduction:

Dr.Atta-ur-Rehman Khan A research student King Abdul Aziz Medical City-WR National Guard Health Affairs What is Research? An introduction Research is like a whisky, that takes time to taste

Glimpses of the past:

Glimpses of the past MY RESEARCH WORK (1999-2006 ) ORIGIONAL RESEARCH ARTICLES 1. Khan AR , P I Paracha. 1999; Dietary Fiber and Colorectal Cancer. Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences. 9(1): 41-47. 2. M S Akhtar, K Almas, N Aslam, Khan AR . February 2001; Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Dietary Fat Along With Some Other Nutrients. Medical Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences. 14(2): 53-60. BREAST CANCER RISK IN RELATION TO DIETARY FAT ALONG WITH SOME ... ATTA-UR-REHMAN ***. SUMMARY: To study association of dietary intake of food groups in breast ... were selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Lahore, ..... existing scientific evidence that relates diet and nutrition to ... www.medicaljournal-ias.org/14_2/Akhta... 3. Khan AR , Sheikh MH, Intekhab K. 2006; Does Weight for Age Have Prognostic Significance in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia? Pak J Med Sci. 22(2):167-170. ( Does weight for age have prognostic significance in children with ... Dr. Atta - ur - Rehman Khan , Ph.D. Clinical Nutritionist Department of Ancillary Health Services Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, ... pjms.com.pk/issues/aprjun06/article/a...

Glimpses of the past:

Glimpses of the past ORIGIONAL RESEARCH ARTICLES 4. Khan AR , Sheikh MH, Intekhab K. 2006; Effect of Hypoproteinemia on Treatment Outcome in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. J Ayub Med Coll Abottabad. 18(2):53-56. This study was conducted in Pediatric and Nutrition. Clinic of Shaukat Khanum ... at Clinical Nutrition section of ancillary health services of the Shaukat Khanum .... Dr. Atta-ur-Rehman Khan, Department of Ancillary Health Services, ... www.ayubmed.edu.pk/JAMC/PAST/18-2/atta 5. Khan AR , Sheikh MH, Intekhab K. 2006; Pre-Existing Malnutrition and Treatment Outcome in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. J Pak Med Assoc. 56(4):171-173. ( Pre-existing malnutrition and treatment outcome in children with ... Atta-ur-Rehman Khan ( Department of Ancillary Health Services, Shaukat Khanum ... study was conducted in Paediatric and Nutrition Clinic of Shaukat Khanum ... www.jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php...

Glimpses of the past:

Glimpses of the past ORIGIONAL RESEARCH ABSTRACTS Depression in malnourished children with cancer I Kiran, Q Atta - ur - Rehman . Department of Ancillary Health Services, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, ... clinical psychologist and clinical nutritionist by using psychological assessment form. ... apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/apjcn/procnu... Malnutrition in children with cancer in Pakistan Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001) 10 (Suppl). S70. Malnutrition in children with cancer in Pakistan. Q Atta - ur - Rehman . Department of Ancillary Health Services, Shaukat Khanum ... factor at Shaukat Khanum Cancer hospital. ... apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/apjcn/procnu... The Nutrition Society of Australia Malnutrition in children with cancer in Pakistan. Q Atta - ur - Rehman . Department of Ancillary Health Services, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital ... apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/Volume... English - World Health Organization - Regional Office for the ... Khan, Atta - ur - Rehman ; Sheikh, Moeen-ul-Haq; Intekhab, Kiran. E-mail:[email protected] Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre ... www.emro.who.int/dsaf/dsa982.pdf

Glimpses of the past:

Glimpses of the past SOCIETY WHERE PUBLISHED / PRESENTED IUNS International Union of Nutritional Sciences (August, 2001) Vienna-Austria DAA Dietetic Association of Australia (Sydney Dec, 2001) Annual meeting and conference APCNS (March, 2002) Osaka Japan, Congress organized by Asian pacific clinical nutrition society 3 abstract presented in the same conference (Got recognition of the best abstract of the oncology session)

Glimpses of the past:

Glimpses of the past FADA Federation of Asian Dietetic Association (2002) Kualalumpur-Malaysia BDA British Dietetic Association (2006) Annual meeting and conference in Nottingham-UK ADA American Dietetic Association (2004) International Congress organized by ADA in Chicago-USA

Glimpses of the past:

Glimpses of the past ICDA International Confederation of Dietetic Association (2004) International congress-Canada APSSO Asia-pacific society for study of obesity (2006) Seoul-South Korea

Glimpses of the past:

Glimpses of the past IASO (2005) International association for the study of obesity, London-UK PMA Pakistan Medical Association (2006) WHO (www.emro.who.int/dsaf/dsa982)

Glimpses of the past:

Glimpses of the past WHO http://www.emro.who.int/dsaf/dsa960.pdf ADA The ADAF Directory Resources for International Food, Nutrition, and Dietetic Professionals New York, 2004 BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION (BJN) Cambridge University

Glimpses of the past:

Glimpses of the past COUNTRY / STATE OF PRESENTATION / PUBLICATION Nutritional research Journal from following countries America Australia Austria Canada Iran Japan Malaysia Pakistan India South Korea Turkey

Research?:

Research? Etymology The word research is derived from the French recherche , from rechercher , to search closely where "chercher" means "to look for or to search".

Research?:

Research? How to do Research : solve a problem, publish Dissecting the Dimensions of Research : topic, novelty, technology, scope, mode, methods, ideology, politics, utility Reassembling the Dimensions : quantitative vs qualitative research

How to do Research:

How to do Research Research is all about addressing an issue or asking and answering a question or solving a problem , so… Identify an issue, question, or problem. Talk with people who want or need your study . Find out what's already known about it. Talk with experts and/or read their reviews and the original research on the topic.

How to do Research:

How to do Research Plan, cost, and do your study accordingly. Write it up and submit it for assessment. Better still, do a good job on it and submit it for publication . Your work will benefit more people if you publish it. Rule No. 1 in academia is publish or perish .

Dissecting the Dimensions of Research:

Dissecting the Dimensions of Research Meanwhile consider these dimensions: topic : physical–bi olog ical–psychological–soci ological novelty : create new vs review published data or info technology : develop new vs use existing methods scope: study a single case vs a sample mode: observe vs intervene method ology : qualitative vs quantitative (info vs numbers) ideology: objective vs subjective (positivist vs interpretivist) politics: neutral vs partisan utility: pure vs applied reassembling the dimensions Click to link to each dimension. Click here for Conclusions.

Topic: what are you researching?:

Topic: what are you researching? Examples Clinical: the effect of a herb on performance. Psychological: factors affecting work-place satisfaction. Behavioral: how can we reduce truancy at this school? Finding a good question/problem to address can be hard. It helps to have a good supervisor , good colleagues , and/or knowledge or practical experience of and affinity for a topic. You must read journal articles to find out what's already known. Authors also often point out topics for future research. biophysical psychosocial clinical behavioral psychological economic social

Novelty: creating new or reviewing published info?:

Novelty: creating new or reviewing published info? Most research projects are so-called original investigations . You obtain new data or information about a phenomenon. You reach a conclusion and try to publish it. Some research projects are reviews of the literature . You use other researchers' published data or info about a phenomenon. A quantitative statistical review is called a meta-analysis . You should "earn your spurs" doing original research before taking on a stand-alone review. But a write-up of an original investigation always has to include a short review of literature. create review

Technology: develop new or use existing method (s)?:

Technology: develop new or use existing method (s)? Sometimes a legitimate topic for study is methodological. For example, development or novel investigation of … a measuring device a psychometric instrument (questionnaire or inventory) a protocol for a physical performance test a diagnostic test a method of analysis. You usually include or focus on a reliability and/or validity study of the measure provided by the method. Validity = t he relationship between observed and true values. Reliability = reproducibility of observed values. develop new use existing

Scope: case or sample?:

Are you solving a single case of something, or is it a sample that will allow you to generalize to a population ? In a case study … You are interested in "what happened or will happen here" . Your finding applies only locally : to the case you studied. The quest for an answer can be like that in a court case . Qualitative methods are often required. You reach an answer by applying logic (= common sense?) and skepticism to your knowledge and to the information you gather. Be wary of conventional wisdom and your own prejudices . case sample Scope: case or sample?

PowerPoint Presentation:

In a study of a sample … You are interested in "what happens in general" . Rarely, "what" is simply descriptive: the frequency, mean value or other simple statistic of something in the sample. Most often, the "what" is the value of an effect statistic : the relationship between the thing of interest (a dependent variable , such as health, performance…) and something else (a predictor variable , such as training, gender, diet…) in the sample. You control for other possible predictor variables either by holding them constant or measuring and including them in the analysis. Example: the effect of physical activity on health, controlling for the effect of age on health.

PowerPoint Presentation:

More about studying a sample… You study a sample, because it is impractical and wasteful (and therefore unethical ) to study a population. “What happens in general" refers to the average person or situation in a population represented by your sample. "Population" is a defined group , not the entire human race or all possible situations. You make inferences about that population; that is, you generalize from the sample to a population. You can make inferences to other populations only if you can argue that those populations are similar to your sample with respect to the effect you have studied.

PowerPoint Presentation:

There are several ways to generalize from sample to population… Old: develop a null hypothesis about a relationship, then test the hypothesis (that is, try to falsify it) using statistical significance based on something called the P value . New: identify a relationship, measure its magnitude , state the uncertainty in the true value using confidence limits, then make a conclusion about its clinical or practical importance in the population. Sample size is a big issue. The smaller the sample, the more the uncertainty. Unfortunately most relationships are weak or trivial, so you usually need large samples .

Mode of Enquiry: observational or interventionist?:

Mode of Enquiry: observational or interventionist? In an observational study… The aim is to gather data or information about the world as it is . So you hope the act of studying doesn't substantially modify the thing you are interested in. In an interventionist study… You do something to the world and see what happens. You gather data or information almost always before and after the intervention, then look for changes . observational or non-experimental or descriptive interventionist or experimental

PowerPoint Presentation:

The following comments refer to observational and interventionist studies with samples . The estimate of the magnitude of a relationship is less likely to be biased (that is, not the same as in a population) if… the sample is selected randomly from the population, and… you have a high compliance (low proportion of dropouts). An observational study of a sample… usually establishes only an association between variables rather than a causal relationship; needs hundreds or even thousands of subjects for accurate estimation of trivial or small effects.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Types of observational study with a sample, weak to strong: Case series , e.g. 20 gold medalists. Cross-sectional (correlational), e.g. a sample of 1000 athletes. Case-control (retrospective), e.g. 200 Olympians and 800 non-Olympians. Cohort (prospective or longitudinal), e.g. measure characteristics of 1000 athletes then determine incidence of Olympic medals after 10 years. In a n intervention with a sample… You can establish causality : X really does affect Y. You may need only scores of subjects for accurate generalization about trivial or small effects. The outcome is the effect of a treatment on the average subject . Researchers usually neglect the important question of individual responses to the treatment.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Types of intervention with a sample, weak to strong: No control group (time series), e.g. measure performance in 10 athletes before and after a training intervention. Crossover , e.g. give 5 athletes a drug and another 5 athletes a placebo, measure performance; wait a while to wash out the treatments, then cross over the treatments and measure again. Ethically good, because all subjects get all treatments. But can't use if the effect of the treatment takes too long to wash out. E ach subject can receive more than two treatments. Controlled trial , e.g. measure performance of 20 athletes before and after a drug and another 20 before and after a placebo. You need up to 4x as many subjects as in a crossover.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In interventions, bias is less likely if… Subjects are randomly assigned to treatments. Assignment is balanced in respect of any characteristics that might affect the outcome. In other words, you want treatment groups to be similar . Subjects and researchers are blind to the identity of the active and control (placebo) treatments. Single blind = subjects don't know which is which. Double blind = the researchers administering the treatments and doing the measurements and analysis don't know either.

Methods: quantitative or qualitative?:

Methods: quantitative or qualitative? With quantitative methods… You gather data with an instrument , such as a stopwatch, a blood test, a video analysis package, or a structured questionnaire. You derive measures or variables from the data, then investigate relationships among the variables. Some people think you have to do it by testing hypotheses . Error of measurement is an important issue. Almost all measures have noise or other errors. Errors affect the relationship between measures. You attend to errors via validity and reliability . A pilot study to investigate error can be valuable. quantitative qualitative

Ideology: objective or subjective?:

Ideology: objective or subjective? Others refer to this dimension as paradigmatic or philosophical . A paradigm sometimes has religious status for its adherents: thou shalt not question it! Positivist or objective We make and share observations, identify problems and solve them without disagreement about the nature of meaning or reality . This so-called dominant paradigm is responsible for our current understanding of life, the Universe, and almost everything. positivist post-structuralist interpretivist objective subjective

Utility: pure or applied?:

Utility: pure or applied? In pure , basic , theoretical or academic projects, the aim is to understand the cause or mechanism of a phenomenon. Applied or practical projects impact directly on health , wealth , or culture (art, recreation…), or on development of a method . Understanding something may give you ideas for more projects. Pure is sometimes lab-based , lacking naturalness. Applied is sometimes field-based , lacking control. pure applied

Reassembling the Dimensions:

Reassembling the Dimensions A given research project is a point in multidimensional space. Some regions of this space are popular: These often go together as quantitative research . These often go together as qualitative research . interventionist observational biophysical psychosocial sample case quantitative qualitative objective subjective neutral partisan topic scope method mode ideology politics

In Conclusion…:

In Conclusion… A given research project can be characterized by topic , novelty , technology , scope , mode , methods , ideology , politics and utility . This dimensional view may help you sort out a good approach to a specific project, but… I may have missed or mangled some dimensions. There may be better ways to understand research. Your work needs to be credible to some people and preferably also published if it’s to have any impact.

Thanks:

Thanks

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