banana bunch management

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Dr. R. T. Patil Director, Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Post Harvest Technology of Banana with Special Reference to Bunch Management

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Banana Nutrition

Reasons for Losses :

Reasons for Losses Handling of raw produce through many stages of middlemen. Processing is mostly controlled by urban rather than rural entrepreneurs which leads to losses in valuable by products. Non availability of adequate and efficient equipment and machinery to be used in catchment areas. Low level of entrepreneurial urge in rural areas due to constraints of finance, assured market and proper training on technology On the whole, there exists a fragmented and inefficient value chain

Bunch Covering:

Bunch Covering Bagging is common in the French West Indies, Latin America, Africa, Australia. Protects bunches against cold, sun scorching, against attack of thrips and scarring beetle. Bunch covering with dry leaves is a common practice in India, Temperatures under the cover can be 2° - 6°C warmer, and during cool times of the year this can increase fruit length and hasten fruit filling (harvest four to 14 days earlier). In warmer climate like India reflective silver covers and pulling down a leaf over the cover can be followed. Perforated covers are also used to reduce sunburn damage for export production overseas.

Mechanical Damage:

Mechanical Damage Mechanical damage is one of the major factors leading to post-harvest deterioration of banana Mechanical damage can detract from the product's appearance and increase potential for infection by diseases.

Sources of Mechanical Damage:

Sources of Mechanical Damage Impact- Impact damage can result in bruising with or without skin rupture. Impact bruises are caused from a sharp blow such as an object falling onto the fruit or fruit falling against another fruit or onto a hard surface with sufficient force to damage or even separate the cells. Impact damage can occur throughout the entire marketing process from harvesting through to the consumer. Pressure (or compression) Pressure (or compression) damage results from excessive pressure on the fruit. Pressure damage can be caused by other fruits and occurs primarily during and after packing as a result of forcing too much produce into too small a container (i.e. over-packed or where packages are stacked too high). Vibrations Vibration damage is mainly associated with transportation and results from repeated and prolonged vibration of the fruit. This damage is greatest in the top layers of fruit, particularly where there is a loose packVibration damage is particularly severe in loosely packed fruits.

Factors Affecting Mechanical Damage:

Factors Affecting Mechanical Damage Pre-harvest factors Pre-harvest factors are weather, wind, spraying and fertilizer application, insect pests, birds, rodents and farm implements. Harvesting factors Due to poor harvesting and handling techniques. Soil adhering to fruits (when allowed to fall down during harvesting) at harvest can also cause damage by scarring fruits when the soil is removed or washed away. Post-harvest factors Post-harvest factors which can contribute to mechanical damage include: •Over-packing and under-packing of fruits. •Poor packaging and handling of packed fruits during loading and unloading. •Vibration (shaking) of vehicles especially on bad roads, speed of transportation and type of suspension.

Modern Harvesting Methods:

Modern Harvesting Methods Figure shows the instrument/ equipment developed for holding the banana bunch prior to cutting and reduces to human drugery. The backer carries the fruit and attaches it to a nearby overhead cableway where the stem is transported to the packing shed. It can also be transported in carts. In the packing shed, the bananas are removed by hand by skilled workers and washed. They also go through quality control, before being packed in cardboard boxes.

Mechanical Banana Harvester:

Mechanical Banana Harvester In 1998 Tom Johnston built the first pototype, which proved it could reach and cut a banana bunch. Being only a 2 tonne excavator though, it could not handle the weight and duly toppled over. From there Tom went to Komatsu with his invention; they supplied a second-hand 4.5 ton excavator. The second prototype with modifications such as rubber tracks, extendable boom, upgraded hydraulics and grab modifications, proved mechanical harvesting would work. In 2000 a third prototype of the Harvester was released at the Gold Coast World Banana Congress (Queensland Australia).

Post-harvest Handling :

Post-harvest Handling Banana bunches are hung on tramways and pulled out of plantings by tractors or people. Fruit are shipped by boat when green, and ripened by exposure to ethylene gas (1000 ppm for 24 hr) at their destination, in sealed "banana ripening rooms".

CIPHET Banana Comb/Hand Cutter :

CIPHET Banana Comb/Hand Cutter CIPHET Banana-comb cutter maintains smooth cutting curve of banana-comb, with no fruit damage during cutting as in case of knife or sickle cutting, some banana-finger getting damaged. With this tool one person performs the banana- comb cutting activity with less stress as compared to the traditional method of cutting. As such no data is available regarding percentage damage of banana-bunch, banana-comb or banana-fingers during cutting by presently used sickle by traders or farmers.

Packing and Transport :

Packing and Transport The banana bunches harvested at optimum maturity are wrapped with dried banana levels before packing into in lorries or railways wagons for long distance transport. At destination the bunches are dehanded and sold in retail outlets. In Tamil Nadu, Hill banana 'Virupakshi' is dehanded in the plantation itself and are packed in small lots of 500 fruits each and marketed in Madras and Dindigul. In Kerala, the Nendran bunches are marketed as whole bunches itself. International market accepts separated bananas from bunches and properly cleaned and packed in appropriate packs Carry the bunch in plastic baskets

Cleaning, Packing and Transport :

Cleaning, Packing and Transport

Packing and Transport :

Packing and Transport Individual bagging of clusters in perforated polythene bags is recommended. Polypropylene bags add visibility so those must be used. Bag packaging reduces weight loss, promotes good peel colour on ripening and reduces abrasion of one fruit on the next. Weigh to specified weight to avoid under- or overweight as quality will be impaired under both conditions. Correct choice of bag: perforated or non-perforated modified atmosphere packaging. Well-trained staff for handling and packaging High quality, recyclable packaging material, glued/sealed instead of stapled. Full audit-trail information on every carton, plus all legally required information. Palletization at the point of packing is highly desirable to ensure maintenance quality and avoid excessive handling/mishandling.

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management :

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management Fruits and Vegetables Preharvest treatment Harvesting at Maturity Safe harvesting Pre cooling & washing Surface drying Cool/cold storage Safe transport Safe handling Higher the Value Addition Better the PH Management and Lower Will Be Losses

Diversified Products from Banana:

Diversified Products from Banana Flour Flour can be made from green unripe banana. Fruits should be hand-peeled and sliced or chopped into pieces about 5-10 mm thick. The slices may be dried in the sun by spreading out the slices on mats or can be dried in oven, in a cabinet dryer or tunnel dryer. After drying, the chopped pieces having moisture content of about 5-10% are ground and sieved to produce the flour. Flour may be packed in moisture proof bags. The dried slices may be stored and converted to flour when needed to avoid loss of flavour as flour absorbs moisture reapdly and becomes mouldy. Powder Powder may be prepared from fully ripe banana. Fruits should be washed, hand-peeled and chopped fairly coarsely. The material is converted into a paste by passing through a mill to reduce the particle to a colloidal size (below about 10 μm). A 1-2% Sodium metabisulphite solution is added at this stage to improve the colour of the final product and to prevent discolouration. The material is then dried. Drying can be achieved, either in a spray dryer (at 30-32°C and less than 30% RH under vacuum) or a drum dryer (product temperature should not exceed 94°C). After drum drying it might be necessary to further dry the product in a cabinet dryer. The final moisture content of the powder should be about 2% and stored in moisture proof bags. Why not to make Jam from Banana? 12 cups sliced bananas (about 20 medium) 6 cups sugar 1 1/2 cups orange juice 3 strips orange peel 6 strips lemon peel 2 sticks cinnamon 6 whole cloves In a large kettle, combine sliced bananas with sugar, orange juice, orange and lemon peels, cinnamon and cloves. Stir over medium heat until sugar dissolves. Boil rapidly 10 minutes. Reduce heat and simmer, stirring constantly, until thickened, about 15 to 20 minutes. When jam is thick, remove from heat and ladle immediately into sterilized canning jars. Fill to within 1/8 inch of top. Screw caps on evenly and tightly. Invert for few seconds, then stand jars upright to cool. If jam is to be stored for long period, place jars on rack in large kettle and cover with boiling water. Boil 10 to 15 minutes to sterilize. Remove from water and cool. Makes about 2.5 kg jam.

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Diversified value addition at production catchment to our unique agricultural wealth can bring prosperity to rural (real) India Thank You !!!