Kumar ISRO Past and Future

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Slide 1:

Perspective on Indian Space Program : Virender Kumar Counsellor(Space) Indian Space Research Organization Embassy of India Washington DC Boston University: April 13, 2007

Slide 2:

" ….. we must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society, which we find in our country. … - Dr. Vikram A. Sarabhai Frank Admission : Existence of abundant down-to-earth problems of development. Prudent assertion : Science &Technology being crucial apparatus for development. Commitment : Science &Technology for socio-economic benefits in preference to display of grandeur. Military Superiority Technological Dominance Display of Grandeur Indian Space Program is very different. Very deeply rooted to the society SPACE POLICY

Slide 3:

The Humble beginning

Mandate and Mantra:

Mandate and Mantra Application of Space Technology for the benefit of the common man

Slide 5:

India today runs and maintains its own space program Remarkable benefits are being provided to the common man in timely & Cost- effective fashion DID IT WORK ?

Slide 6:

INSAT FAMILY INSAT-1 INSAT-2C,D INSAT-2A,B INSAT-2E INSAT-3B INSAT-4B INSAT-3D INSAT-3E DTH APPLE GSAT-2 INSAT-3A * ONE OF THE LARGEST DOMESTIC SATCOM SYSTEMS - Ku, C, S BANDS * MULTI-PURPOSE : TELECOM, TV, METEOROLOGY 200 TRANSPONDERS, GLOBAL/DOMESTIC BEAMS EDUSAT (GSAT-3)

Slide 7:

BROADCAST Television Bro adcasting Direct To Home (DTH) TV & Radio Networking METEOROLOGICAL Meteorological Imaging Data Collection Platform Disaster Warning OTHERS Mobile Satellite Service Search and Rescue Satellite Navigation Speech Circuits On Trunk Routes VSAT Connectivity COMMUNICATION INSAT SYSTEM APPLICATIONS Tele-health Tele-education Emergency Communication DEVELOPMENTAL

Slide 8:

Video + Audio Teaching-End Class Room-2 Class Room-1 Audio TELE EDUCATION EduSat 5 Spot Beams in Ku Band 1 National Beam in Ku Band 1 National Beam in Ext C Band (6 Channels) Video + Audio

Slide 9:

180 Hospitals 146 Dist/ Rural Hospitals 34 Super Specialty Hospitals Reaching the un-reached Panel of Doctors Video Conferencing Health Specialist Centre Pathology Cardiology Video Conferencing TELE MEDICINE VIA SATELLITE Referral Hospitals

INDIAN IMAGING SYSTEMS:

CARTOSAT - 1 PAN - 2.5M, 30 KM, F/A RESOURCESAT-1 LISS3 - 23 M; 4 XS LISS4 - 5.8 M; 3-XS AWIFS - 70 M; 4-XS CARTOSAT-2 PAN - 1M MEGHA-TROPIQUES SAPHIR SCARAB & MADRAS 2003 2005 2007 IRS-1C/1D LISS-3 (23/70M, STEERABLE PAN (5.8 M); WiFS (188M) INSAT-2E CCD (1KM RESOLUTION; EVERY 30 MNUTESS) INDIAN IMAGING SYSTEMS IMAGING IMPROVEMENTS 1KM TO 1.0 M RESOLUTION GLOBAL COVERAGE APPLICATION-SPECIFIC 1999 IRS-P2 LISS-2 IRS-P3 WiFS MOS X-Ray IRS-P4 OCEANSAT OCM, MSMR IRS-1A/1B LISS-1&2 (72/36M, 4 BANDS; VIS & NIR) BHASKARA RS-D1 1979 1982 1988/91 1994 1996 1995/1997 1999

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EARTH OBSERVATION – APPLICATIONS WATER Potential Drinking Water Zones Command Area Management Reservoir Sedimentation OCEAN Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ) Coastal Zone Mapping DISASTER SUPPORT Flood Damage Assessment Drought Monitoring Land Slide Hazard Zonation FOREST, ENVIRONMENT, BIO Forest Cover & Type Mapping Forest Fire and Risk Mapping Biodiversity Characterisation Environmental Impact Studies AGRICULTURE & SOIL Crop Acreage & Production Estimation Soil & Land Degradation Mapping Watershed Development Horticulture Mission for North-East LAND Landuse/Land Cover Mapping Wasteland Mapping Urban Sprawl Studies Large Scale Mapping WEATHER & CLIMATE Extended Range Monsoon Forecasting Ocean State Forecasting

Slide 12:

Development of spatial information system on ground water covering problem states More than 90% success rate in drilled sources (more than 2,00,000 in 7 states ) Ground Water Prospect Map with Sites for Recharge Implementation and Feedback status A milestone application towards building social infrastructure  Wells Drilled  Success Rate (%) Kerala 7,730  92 KAR 34,688  93 AP 35,139  93 MP 22,006  90 RAJ 67,775  90 CHG 34,413  93 RAJIV GANDHI NATIONAL DRINKING WATER MISSION

Slide 13:

PSLV GSLV GSLV MkIII Weight (T) 294 400 629 Payload (Kgs) 1,500 SSO 2,250 GTO 4,000 to 4,500 GTO Flights 9 (1993-07) 4 (2001-06) -- ISRO LAUNCHERS

Slide 14:

November 21, 1963 SLV-3 ASLV TODAY, 2007 PSLV GSLV ARYABHATA 19.04.75 GSAT-2 08.05.03 KALPANA-1 12.09.02 INSAT-2E 03.04.99 INSAT-3B 22.03.00 INSAT-3A 10.04.03 IRS-1D 29.09.97 RESOURCESAT-1 17.10.03 INSAT-3E 28.09.03 TES 22.10.01 INSAT-3C 24.01.02 IRS-P4 26.05.99 Self reliance in launching Self reliance in building satellites 46 + 6 Spacecraft Missions 10 4 LAUNCH VEHICLE SATELLITE APPLICATIONS 22 Launch Vehicle Missions EDUSAT 20.09.04 HAMSAT 05.05.05 CARTOSAT-1 05.05.05 FOUR DECADES OF INDIAN SPACE PROGRAMME CARTOSAT-2 10.01.07 INSAT-4A 22.12.05

Slide 15:

SPACE SCIENCE ASTROSAT Chandrayaan-1 India’s First Lunar Mission

First Lunar Mission:

First Lunar Mission The satellite construction is progressing. The launch is scheduled in 2008 CHANDRAYAAN-1

Chandrayaan-1 Mission Objectives:

Chandrayaan-1 Mission Objectives High resolution imaging and chemical and mineralogical mapping of lunar surface to define the process leading to the formation and chemical evolution of moon. Remote sensing in visible, near Infra Red, low energy X-ray and high energy X-ray regions Systematic topographic mapping of the whole surface of the moon. Develop expertise of planning and execution of mission for sending S/C to orbit around moon, this exercise will help for future planetary exploration missions. To establish capability of planetary data analysis, data archival and dissemination.

Chandrayaan-1 Mission Spin-offs:

Chandrayaan-1 Mission Spin-offs Realization of Deep Space Network (DSN) Establishment of Indian Space Science Data Centre (ISSDC) With the concept of Announcement Of Opportunity (AO) payloads, many space agencies are participating in Chandrayaan-1 International Co-operation for Space science and Space exploration Generation of interest among the student Community

Slide 19:

Chandrayaan-1 Payloads ISRO Terrain Mapping Camera – ( TMC ) Hyper Spectral Imager – ( HySI-VNIR ) Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument – ( LLRI ) High Energy X-ray payload – ( HEX ) Moon IMPACT PROBE with MSM, Video camera and an altimeter – ( MIP ) Other Space Agencies / Research Institutions Low Energy X-ray (CIXS & SXM): RAL,UK Mini SAR(APL/NASA, USA) SIR-2, Max Plank Inst, Germany Sub Kev Atom Reflecting Analyzer – IRF, swedan; JAXA,Japan; ISAS, Switzerland; SPL, India Radiation Dose Monitor (Bulgaria) – ( RADOM ) Moon Mineralogy Mapper (JPL/NASA,USA) – (M 3 )

ISRO SPENT AROUND $ 540 M in 2005-2006:

ISRO SPENT AROUND $ 540 M in 2005-2006 Billions of $ Source : World Market Prospects for Public Space Programs by Euroconsult 2002 Comparison with other Space Faring Nations (2001) Space Health Care Education Comparison within India 8 cent out of $ 100 GNP Space Agencies Spend world over spend over $23b in a year. Indian Spending : Around 2 Cents in a dollar A fleet of 9 Geostationary Satellites ( INSAT- 2E; 3 A; 3 B; 3C; 3E; Kalpana-1; GSAT-2; Edusat; 4A ) A fleet of 8 Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS – 1 C; 1D; P3; P4; TES, Resourcesat-1, Cartosat 1&2 ) Two operational Launcher s – PSLV & GSLV End-to-end capability in Remote Sensing & Telecommunication arena A wide spectrum of applications benefiting the society A reasonable success in commercialisation efforts 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 US ESA JAPAN FRANCE ITALY GERMANY INDIA CANADA CHINA BRAZIL AT WHAT COST ? 39% on access to space and 56.4% on bringing down benefits of space to earth

Possible Future Missions:

Possible Future Missions Basically four types of future missions are being envisaged. (These missions are a result of a thought process within the Indian Scientific community and are not Govt. approved ISRO projects yet) Follow on mission to Moon: Considered time frame- 2011 (Chandrayaan-2) Asteroid / Comet flyby mission: Possible time frame- 2015 Mission to Mars :Timeframe- 2019 Human Mission : Timeframe 2020 Missions to other planets (Venus, Mercury…Vision beyond 2020)

Chandrayaan - 2:

Chandrayaan - 2 Mission includes Orbiter and Lander Remote Sensing instruments Lander might include robotics, rovers and penetrators. Preferred landing sites, specific scientific problems and instruments need to be finalized. Far side of the moon, particularly South Pole Aitkin (SPA) basin is a prime candidate. Considered time frame : 2011 Possible instruments on the orbiter: Terrain mapping camera 400-4000nm hyper spectral Imager Low energy X-ray spectrometer (CCD-array) Gamma ray, neutron, alpha spectrometer

Mission to Asteroid:

Mission to Asteroid Orbiter mission to a main belt Asteroid / Comet OR Orbiter mission around a suitable to near earth asteroid coupled with flyby to one or more comets / asteroids Possible time frame : 2015

Slide 24:

Scientific objectives  Understanding Evolution of Asteroids  Shape, Size, Mass and Composition of Asteroids  Asteroids (e.g. Vesta and Ceres) as parent bodies of meteorites (differentiated and stony type)  Role of water/ice in controlling asteroid evolution  Thermal history, differentiation and core size Asteroid Mission: Science Goals & Mission Priorities Understanding the very early processes operating in Planetesimals and hence in Planets

Slide 25:

Comet mission configuration to be based on the outcome of other such missions Surface and Interior of Comet Nucleus Composition of dust and gas in the coma Details of thermal balance and outflow (sublimation of Ice) Solar radiations & solar wind interaction Samples of Comet Dust for Laboratory Studies COMA SUN NUCLEUS ION TAIL DUST TAIL COMET ORBIT Hydrogen Envelope Target: Comet

Mission to Mars:

Mission to Mars Orbiter mission to Mars to study Mars atmosphere, weather and solar wind-Mars interactions. Instruments to be developed are for studying weak magnetic field and plasma Timeframe : 2019

Thank You:

Thank You

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