high performing and learning organization

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Ch-14 High Performing Systems and The Learning Organization:

Ch-14 High Performing Systems and The Learning Organization By: Radhika Gandhi

Points to be Covered:

Points to be Covered System Wide Interventions Survey Research and Feedback The Learning Organizations Reengineering System 4 Management High-Performance Systems (HPS) The Grid OD Program The Third-Wave Organization

System Wide Interventions:

System Wide Interventions All OD Interventions are aimed at improving organization effectiveness, but certain interventions aim at the successful implementation of change within the total system. OD is essentially a system approach to the complex set of interpersonal team and interteam relationships that are found in Organizations.


Cont.. The system-level Intervention may be described as a structural design framework for viewing an Organization that examines (1) the way the organization is designed, (2) the organization’s work processes, and (3) the interaction of individuals and teams within the flows and structures of the system. The major system-level interventions include Survey-Research and feedback, The learning organizations, Reengineering, The system 4 approach, High-performing systems, Grid OD, and Third Wave

Survey Research and Feedback:

Survey Research and Feedback Employee attitude Surveys have two important functions : An Improvement tool A Communication tool Employee Surveys may be used to : Assess the state of the Organization, department, or work team Evaluate policies, procedures and work processes Assess job satisfaction and Morale Identify problems that hinder employees from doing their Jobs and satisfying customers.


Cont… Survey Research and Feedback is a procees in which the OD Practitioner and members of the Organization collaboratively collect data and use them as a basis for changing organizational relationships. This method has been developed by the Survey Research Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

Steps in Survey-Research and Feedback:

Steps in Survey-Research and Feedback Involvement of Top Management Survey Questionnaire administered by the outside staff. Summarization of data by the outside staff and feedback Work Groups and Manager diagnose the problems and develop action programs

Results of Survey Research and Feedback:

Results of Survey Research and Feedback Indicate positive changes in employee attitudes and perceptions. Powerful process for creating and reporting changes within an Organization. Greater involvement of all members produces greater change. Feedback when combined with other interventions, results in more substantial change.

The Learning Organization:

The Learning Organization The Learning Organization is a system-wide change program that emphasizes the reduction of Organizational layers and the involvement of all employees- management, nonmanagement, professionals, line functions, staff, and so forth- in continuous self-directed learning that will lead toward positive change and growth in the Individual, team, and Organization.

Core Values:

Core Values Value different kinds of knowledge and learning styles. Encourage communication between people who have different perspectives and ideas. Develop creative thinking. Remain nonjudgemental of other and their ideas. Breakdown traditional barriers within the Organization. Develop leadership throughout the Organization. Reduce distinctions between Organization members. Believe that every member of an Organization has an untapped human potential.

Characteristics of Learning Organization:

Characteristics of Learning Organization Constant Readiness Continuous Planning Improvised Implementation Action Learning

Reengineering: A Radical Redesign:

Reengineering: A Radical Redesign Reengineering, or Business Process Reengineering as sometimes it is called , is a system-wide change approach focusing on the basic processes of an Organization. It may be defined as a fundamental rethinking and radical redesigning of Business processes to achieve drastic improvements in performance. Reengineering, as the name implies, focuses on the design of work activities and processes. It seeks to make all processes more effiecient by combining, eliminating, or restructuring withour regard to traditional methods.


Cont… Reengineering emphasizes products, customer satisfaction, improvement in processes, and creation of value. The focus is on customer. Does not refer to minor modifications of current practices instead it means rethinking existing processes to deliver more value to the customer, identifying the way things can be done best, and right now.

Steps in Reengineering:

Steps in Reengineering Identify the key business processes of a department or a work team. Identify performance measure in terms of customer satisfaction and to examine current processes to meet these measures. To reengineer the process, organizing work around the process, not around functions or departments. Reengineering examines each process and evaluates it in terms of how it affects the customer.

System 4 Management :

System 4 Management Likert developed System 4 management model based on his research of organizations. It describes organizations on a continuum: Bureaucratic organizations (ineffective) at one end. Participative (effective) at the other.

The Four Management Systems :

The Four Management Systems System 1 - Exploitive/Authoritative (autocratic, top-down). System 2 - Exploitive/Authoritative (top-down/less coercive-autocratic). System 3 – Consultative. System 4 – Participative. Implications to OD: System 1 organizations tend to be least effective, system 4 tend to be most effective. OD practitioner tries to move from system 1 organization to system 4 organization.

Common Elements in System 4 Organizations :

Common Elements in System 4 Organizations Action rather than further analysis. Decisions involving subordinates, not superiors. Individual accountability, not rigid policies. Specific recognition of team and individual accomplishments, not blanket expressions of thanks.

High-Performing Systems (HPS) :

High-Performing Systems (HPS) HPS calls for removal of excessive layers of organization. HPS creates climate of participation and communication across functional barriers. HPS is term originated by Peter Vaill.

Eight Criteria Used to Examine HPS :

Eight Criteria Used to Examine HPS Perform excellently against external standard. Perform excellently against potential. Perform excellently to some earlier point. Perform with significantly fewer resources than assumed are needed. Doing substantially better than other systems. Perceived as source of ideas for others. Perceived to fulfill high level for culture within which it exists. Only organization that is able to do what it does.

Characteristics of HPS :

Characteristics of HPS An HPS knows why it exists. Commitment to purposes always high. Teamwork focused on task. Leadership is strong and clear. An HPS is fertile source of new methods. Strong consciousness that “we are different.” Other subsystems often see HPS as problem because HPS produces its own standards. HPS is cohesive unit.

Grid OD Program :

Grid OD Program Grid OD is systematic approach to achieve corporate excellence by changing basic culture of system. Starts with focus on managerial styles. Moves through phases involving the work team and culture of organization. Six Grid Phases: Phase 1: Grid seminars. Someone in management position attends seminar. Phase 2: Teamwork development. Begins with top manager and continues through entire organization.


Cont…. Phase 3: Intergroup development. Sessions attended by key members of 2 segments where barriers exist. Phase 4: Development of ideal strategic model. Provides skills to move to systematic development. Phase 5: Implement ideal strategic model. Organization divided into planning teams and model is implemented. Phase 6: Systematic examination of progress toward change goals.

Third Wave Organization :

Third Wave Organization Term originated by business futurist Alvin Toffler. Describes organizations that are evolving in information age to meet changing times. Characteristics of Third Wave Organization: Flexibility - structure has no permanence. Creativity - people motivated by commitment to vision or cause. Innovation - support for risk taking and innovation.