MLOS 500a 1

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MLOS 500a Research in Organizations:

1 MLOS 500a Research in Organizations Part A—Lecture One Ruth Anna Abigail, Ph.D. Professor, Center for Adult and Professional Studies Azusa Pacific University © 2011 Azusa Pacific University. All rights reserved.

What is Research?:

2 What is Research? Question-oriented Planned and systematic Allows for serendipity Observation-based

What is Research?:

3 What is Research? Creative—looks for new questions Geared toward explanation Replicable—others may duplicate the process Self-critical—reports own flaws

What is Research?:

4 What is Research? • Public—open to questioning or examination by anyone • Cumulative and self-correcting—creates a shared history • Cyclical—ends with new questions to answer • It is a sound argument— claims are advanced on the basis of evidence • It is partial—there is always more

What is Research?:

5 What is Research? Research using the scientific method is different from other sources of “truth”, e.g., authority, experience, faith, reason, beliefs, etc. Research stands alongside, and sometimes in opposition, to everyday ways of knowing

Everyday ways of knowing:

6 Everyday ways of knowing aren’t bad, but They tend to be unexamined They tend to be taken for granted We tend to remember anecdotal exceptions We think exceptions represent a bigger truth when they don’t People also tend to react to information based on how it is posed

What to Expect in a Research Article:

7 What to Expect in a Research Article

Types of Research :

8 Types of Research Pure or Basic Research: Research conducted to advance our knowledge and theories. Derived from theoretical assumptions about human behavior. Example: Studies of the relationship between motivation and productivity Applied Research: Research conducted to solve a particular problem. Example: Marketing research

The Research Process:

9 The Research Process Assessment of relevant existing knowledge Formulation of concepts and propositions Statement of hypotheses Design the research to test the hypotheses Acquisition of meaningful empirical data Analysis and evaluation of data Provide explanation and state new problems raised by the research

Rules of the Research Process :

10 Rules of the Research Process Maintain “scientific objectivity” Work within your competence area Respect your subjects Give appropriate credit for others’ ideas, assistance, etc. Report conflicting evidence and all that you find

Rules of the Research Process :

11 Rules of the Research Process Describe the flaws in your research. Use primary sources whenever possible. Reporting of research must be done in a honest manner. When working in groups, give appropriate credit for work. Don’t take money for your work (conflict of interest)

Five basic ethical questions:

12 Five basic ethical questions Have the rules of scholarship been followed? Have the participants in the study been adequately informed and will they receive adequate debriefing? If deception is used in the study, is it appropriate? Is the topic being studied ethically appropriate? Has the researcher given thought to whose voice will be privileged in the research report?

Ethical obligations of the researcher:

13 Ethical obligations of the researcher The researcher must accept responsibility for the ethics of the research project Your participants must give informed consent to be in the project Deception must be justified, and must be immediately explained to the subject You must consider whether your subjects are likely to suffer psychological damage from participating in the project, and do your best to avoid harm

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