Principles and methods of training

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Westlake Boys’ High School Sports Institute:

Westlake Boys’ High School Sports Institute Principles of Training & Methods of Training

Principles of Training:

Principles of Training Principles of training definition : These are the underlying theoretical methods of what aspects need to be covered to develop an effective and efficient training programme. Training principles represents a BROAD OVERVIEW of WHAT NEEDS TO BE COVERED IN TRAINING

Methods of Training:

Methods of Training Methods of training definition : These are the actual ways in which you carry out the training sessions within the broader principles. (I.e. If training is to be SPECIFIC (Principle) for a 200m sprinter, then one METHOD that can be used is SPRINT training.)

Principles v Methods An overview of differences…..:

Principles v Methods An overview of differences….. PRINCIPLE = What needs to be done for a good training programme METHOD = How to carry out the specific training

PowerPoint Presentation:

Letter Principle PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING S Specificity Training by using specific movements, muscles, energy systems and actions/reactions that relate closely or exactly to the sport being trained for. Eg a surfer actually surfing or a rugby prop doing leg squats to improve scrum power and strength, or a distance runner doing a long, but intense jog. P O Progressive Overload Gradually increasing the difficulty and/or intensity of training to push the athlete increasingly harder and aiming to make steady and continual improvements in their results. This can be increasing weights, sets or reps in the gym, or gradually increasing the time, intensity or frequency of training over a period of time. R Rest Allowing the body systems and muscles adequate time to recover and replenish their stocks. I.e. Muscles fatigued by exercise need to rest, recover and rebuild before being used again. T Time The time spent training should be appropriate to the type of training being done and allow for progress to be made. I.e. A quality pure sprint speed session should have plenty of rest periods in it to increase muscle and lung recovery time whereas a games player training for repeated game related sprints should reduce recovery time to replicate the actual game requirements. F Frequency The amount of times (per day/week/month) that the athlete actually spends training. Too seldom can lead to little or no improvement but, too often leads to physical (and mental) burnout. I.e. a marathon runner who runs for over 2 hours a day and doesn’t allow for recovery and rest will lose race speed and risks injury. I Intensity This relates to how hard (effort) the athlete is, or needs to be, working at. Some sessions require a much higher level of intensity (i.e. 400m repeat sprints) than others (i.e. Tai Chi.) T Type The type of training done needs to be appropriate to the athlete to the sport. I.e. A junior rugby player (U10) would not be expected to do heavy weights, whereas an adult shot putter would, in order to develop sport specific strength and explosiveness.

Principles of training The ideal training programme results in maximum training gains and is represented by the red dot::

Principles of training The ideal training programme results in maximum training gains and is represented by the red dot: T S O P R F I T

Methods of Training :

Methods of Training How to complete relevant and successful training sessions…. TYPE of TRAINING – Also commonly known as TRAINING METHODS . The correct application of relevant training methods that relate to the energy demands, muscles and movements of the chosen sport(s) is another key ingredient to success. If an athlete or coach cannot recognise the energy demands, muscles used, types of movement and heart rate action required during exercise, the relevance of training is compromised and progress (relevant to the sport(s)) will be lessened.

Specific methods::

Specific methods: CONTINUOUS TRAINING: This is best for cardiovascular respiratory endurance (aerobic endurance), as continuous training means training without any breaks (rest periods). For continuous training to lead to improvements, and changes in body composition etc. it should be done 3-6 times per week, and for between 30-90 minutes. Once the body finds the training easier ( adaptation ) the athlete needs to apply one, some or all of the F.I.T.T. principles components, to continue the improvements. (i.e. longer session, more sessions, harder sessions, less rest time.) Because of the long term nature of continuous training it is AEROBIC EXERCISE (30-70% max) and RELIES UPON OXYGEN (O2) AS ITS PRIMARY SOURCE OF ENERGY . *FITT = Frequency, intensity, time and type of training

Specific methods::

Specific methods: WEIGHT TRAINING Weight training means: using resistance exercise (not just dumbells/barbells/weights machines etc.) to improve the efficiency and structure of muscle fibres . (Weight training means using traditional weights machines, but it could also mean using body weight press-ups, sit-ups (Calisthenics) or reaction work (Plyometrics) or pushing/pulling against a partner.) A key aspect with weight training is to understand how to apply the correct amount of repetitions (reps, sets and rest time) for the specific sport(s) you are training for. This means applying specificity to your weight training. In reality this means: what muscles are most commonly used in my sport ? What types of muscle movement are used ? How long do I work for? How hard? and for how long before resting ? Once you know and understand this you can structure a training session to apply specificity .


WEIGHT TRAINING FOR: CARDIOVASCULAR RESPIRATORY ENDURANCE (AEROBIC): A high number of reps (15-50), 3-8 sets with minimal, or no rest time. When one particular muscle group tires, instead of stopping, keep exercising but use muscles from a different area of the body. (i.e. go from biceps to hamstring.) It is less common for this type of weight training to be done , usually because it is time-consuming and can be seen as boring and repetitive. It usually also results in Lactic Acid build up in the muscles being used so is not a ‘pure’ aerobic form of exercise. The aerobic cardiovascular component comes from the lack of rest between exercises, which keep the heart rate in a target zone of 50-75% of its maximum, which is aerobic.


WEIGHT TRAINING FOR: ANAEROBIC STRENGTH An athlete would use very few reps (1-5), few sets (1-3) and long rest periods 2-10 minutes. This type of training is quite rare as it involves the muscle remaining contracted for as long as the body will allow (until Lactic Acid builds up and induces fatigue/failure.) Very few sports rely on static muscle contraction , for any length of time, and this would be limited to activities such as arm wrestling, a static scrummage etc.


WEIGHT TRAINING FOR: ANAEROBIC ENDURANCE (LACTIC ACID TOLERANCE): This requires that the athlete can keep working a muscle, or groups of muscles, at high intensity, for as long as possible before the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) or Lactic Acid builds up and prevents movement or movement at high intensity. This is usually done through concentric and eccentric muscle movement (back and forth) but can also be done through isometric contraction (keeping the muscle at a constant length of contraction.) This type of exercise works through the initial energy supply of the ATP-CP system and then, predominantly uses the LACTIC ACID system . Both are incorporated in the ANAEROBIC SYSTEM . Key aspects here are: HIGHLY INTENSE (ANAEROBIC) EFFORT WORKING THE MUSCLE(S) FOR AS LONG AS POSSIBLE ENDURING, AND TRYING TO OVERCOME, LACTIC ACID ‘BURN’


CALISTHENICS This is another form of resistance training , and as such can be linked with weight training. The key difference here is that exercises are done using the weight of the body, rather than a machine . Examples include: sit-ups, press-ups, pull-ups, dips etc.


CIRCUIT TRAINING This is periods of exercise interspersed with either (a) complete short rest periods, or (b) reductions in intensity whilst still working. ( Eg . a = 1 minute press ups followed by 1 minute break before moving on to the next exercise. b = 1 minute bench press followed by 30 seconds light jogging.) Circuit training is particularly good for sports that have a roughly equal degree of aerobic: anaerobic fitness requirements (rugby, soccer, touch, basketball, hockey, netball etc.) Specificity is applied when done properly by imitating the intensity that the heart works/rests at, by using the muscles used , by mimicking the muscle actions/movements .


PLYOMETRIC TRAINING These are often referred to as bounding or jumping type exercises. This really means concentric muscle movement (muscle shortening) followed by immediate, explosive eccentric muscle movement (lengthening.) It is primarily designed to improve athlete power (strength + speed), particularly the aspect of speed . The key aspects to good plyometric exercise are: Fast ground reaction time (‘hit and react’) Placing the muscles under ‘extra’ weight (jumping from height and rebounding) Allowing complete recovery between exercises /reps (injury prevention) Only doing short bursts/ small amounts of exercise at any one session (injury prevention) Only starting a plyometric session once fully informed, warmed up, but not fatigued (injury prevention ) Plyometrics would normally include: Box jumps and rebounds, hurdle exercises, bounding, medicine ball throws and catches (repeated), running (sprinting drills), ladders (agility), parachute sprinting (resistance), dynamic press ups (i.e. hand clap press ups), dynamic sit ups (i.e. sit ups with twists) etc.


INTERVAL TRAINING This is periods of work, interspersed with rest periods . The rest periods can be long (to allow complete recovery) or short (to allow little recovery.) The application of specificity is the key here, although overload can raise the intensity and lead to good progression . Interval training is usually done by athletes whose sports require a high level of ATP-CP repetition and anaerobic muscular endurance (Lactic Acid system) . E.g. 400m, 800m, 1500m, rugby, soccer, hockey, basketball, netball etc.


FARTLEK TRAINING: This is very similar to interval training except that the rest periods are not total rest periods , but reductions in intensity, but without actually stopping . This type of exercise is good for invasion game sports (soccer, hockey, netball, touch, league, soccer etc) where games are largely continuous with bursts of intense (anaerobic – Lactic Acid) activity and more moderate (aerobic) activity. Fartlek is also often used by distance runners to simulate race conditions where they have to increase speed to keep up/catch up or out run an opponent throughout a race. The name Fartlek is Swedish and means ‘ Speed Play .’


SPRINT TRAINING This is usually tied in closely with Interval Training, but is specifically for the development of sprint speed . It usually means good rest/ recovery periods to maintain quality and to remain (anaerobic –> ATP-CP system) but can also, less commonly, be used with less rest/recovery time to improve anaerobic –> lactic acid system.)


AGILITY TRAINING Used with the anaerobic systems (ATP-CP & Lactic Acid), this is usually incorporated with sprints and intervals, but requires athletes to be quick and also have the co-ordination , reaction speed and balance to change direction easily . (This can include ladder drills, shuttles and ‘open ended’ reaction sprints – chasing a partner)


FLEXIBILITY TRAINING The ability to perform movements (either static, or dynamic )over a (wide) range that helps improve performance and reduces the likelihood of muscle/joint related injuries. Most commonly performed as part of a warm-up or warm-down or through activities such as Yoga or Pilates

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