Chapter 4 - MPP

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Chapter -4 Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Job Design  :

Chapter -4 Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Job Design   By Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin Faculty of Human Resource Department of Business Studies Ibri College of Technology Sultanate of Oman

Job Analysis-Introduction:

Job Analysis-Introduction Job analysis is the process of determining and recording all the pertinent information about a specific job, including the tasks involved, the knowledge and skill set required to perform the job, the responsibilities attached to the job and the abilities required to perform the job successfully. Job analysis differentiates one job from another in an organisation. It involves compiling a detailed description of tasks, determining the relationship of the job to other jobs and examining the knowledge, qualifications or employment standards, accountabilities and other incumbent requirements. In short, job analysis is the recording of all the activities involved in a job and the skill and knowledge requirements of the performer of the job.   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Job analysis provides the necessary inputs for a number of human resource activities like recruitment, selection, job design, estimating job worth, training and appraisal. These activities depend on job analysis. Job analysis contributes either directly or indirectly to all the fields of human resource management.   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Job Analysis Components The above information forms the contents of job description and job specification.       Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

Job Description :

Job Description An essential part of job analysis is the creation of job descriptions. A job description is a list of tasks, duties and responsibilities (TDRs) that a job entails. TDRs are observable actions. When a manager attempts to evaluate job performance, it is most important to have detailed information about the work performed in the job (that is the TDRs). This information makes it possible to determine how well an individual is meeting each job requirements.   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Sample of a Job Description : Sales Associate   Customer service and interaction with customers are key responsibilities of this position. A sales associate must work effectively with customers and other store associates and provide information about products and/or projects. This position also involves stocking merchandise (commodity/product), using tools & equipment, and maintenance duties (e.g. sweeping aisles (passage ways etc ). Major Tasks and responsibilities ● Presenting a consistent, pleasant & service oriented image to customers ● Listening and asking appropriate questions to assist customers in completing projects ● Assisting & working with other store associates in order to complete job tasks ● Using computers, phones & other equipment ● Cleaning and maintaining shelves and aisles   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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All job descriptions within the organization should follow the same format. This helps the organization make consistent decisions about such matters as pay and promotions. It also helps the organization show that it makes human resource decisions fairly. Whenever the organization creates a new job, it needs to prepare a job description. Job descriptions should be reviewed periodically, say, once a year and updated, if necessary. Performance appraisals could provide a good opportunity for updating job descriptions, as the employee and the supervisor compare what the employee has been doing against the details of the job description.   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Organizations should give each newly hired employee a copy of his or her job description. This helps the employee to understand what is expected but it should not be presented as limiting the employee’s commitment to quality and customer satisfaction. Ideally, employees will want to go above and beyond the listed duties when the situation and their abilities call for that. Many job descriptions include the phrase ‘and other duties as requested’ as a way to remind employees not to tell their supervisor, ‘but, that’s not part of my job’. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

Writing job description   :

Writing job description   The following guidelines help in writing a good job description: The nature of the work, including all important relationships, should be indicated The work and duties of the position should be clearly laid out. To show the kind of work, the degree of complexity, the degree of skill required, the extent of the workers responsibility for each phase of work, and the degree and type of accountability, more specific words like analyse, gather, plan, confirm, deliver, maintain, supervise and recommend should be selected and used. Supervisory responsibility should be explained to the incumbent. Brief and accurate statements should be used Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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A new employee should be able to understand the job and its basic requirements. As the operations in an organisation keep on changing in response to market demand and technological changes, jobs and their descriptions also change. An old and outdated job description becomes redundant and irrelevant in an organisational context. It would be of no use for the new job. Hence, job descriptions have to be updated as and when major changes take place in responsibilities, relationships and tasks. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Job Specification Whereas the description focuses on the activities involved in carrying out a job, a job specification looks at the qualities of the person performing the job. It is a list of the knowledge , skills , abilities and other characteristics ( K S A O ) that an individual must have to perform the job. Knowledge refers to factual or procedural information that is necessary for successfully performing a task. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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A skill is an individual’s level of proficiency at performing a particular task – that is – the capability to perform it well. With knowledge and experience, you could acquire skill in the task of preparing job specifications. Ability, in contrast to skill, refers to a more general enduring capability that an individual possesses. A person might have the ability to cooperate with others or to write clearly and precisely other characteristics might be personality traits such as someone’s persistence or motivation to achieve. Some jobs also have legal requirements such as licensing or certification. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Sales Associate   Major skills & Competencies Customer Focus: Ability to maintain a positive customer service orientation when dealing with customers on the phone and in person Stress Tolerance: Ability to work effectively under stressful conditions (e.g., dealing with multiple customers who need help quickly) Teamwork : Ability to work well with others to achieve common goals Listening/Communicating : Ability to listen attentively to others, ask appropriate questions and speak in a clear and understandable manner Minimum job requirements 18 years or older Pass a drug test Be able to work a flexible schedule including weekends, evenings & holidays Pass a sales associate test Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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In developing job specifications, it is important to consider all of the elements of KSAOs. As with writing job descriptions the information can come from a combination of people performing the job, people supervising or planning for job and trained job analysts. In contrast to tasks, duties and responsibilities, KSAO are characteristics of people and are not directly observable. They are observable only when individuals are carrying out the TDRs of the job. Thus, if someone applied for a clerical job, you could not simply look at the individual to determine whether he possessed typing skills. However, you could assess the level of typing skill by observing the person type a document and reviewing the document. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Operations that need to run 24 hours a day have special requirements. Globalization often means that operations take place across many time horizons, requiring management at all hours. When a job entails working night shifts, job specification should reflect this requirement. For most people, working at night disrupts their normal functioning and may cause disorders such as fatigue, depression and obesity. A job specification is a written statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications, knowledge, skills, traits and physical and mental characteristics that an incumbent must posses to perform the job successfully. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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These specifications are captured under the following headings :   Physical Specifications These specifications vary from job to job and include physical features like height, weight, vision, hearing, ability to lift and carry weights, health condition, age and the capacity to use or operate machines, tools, equipment's etc. Physically demanding tasks like operating heavy machinery require more detailed and stringent physical specifications.    Mental Specifications Mental specific actions include analytical ability, data interpretation ability, decision-making ability etc. which are essential to perform the job successfully. The required level of these abilities varies according to the level of the job and depends on the responsibilities associated with the job. Emotional and Social Specification Emotional specification includes stability, adaptability and flexibility. Social specifications include ability to work in a team, lead a team, maintain interpersonal relationships etc. These specifications are more broad based and are normally common across most of the jobs.   Behavioural Specification Behavioural specifications include the ability to make judgments, ability to undertake research, creativity, teaching ability, maturity (whether the individual is capable of accepting responsibilities), self-reliance, and the ability to be authoritative, etc. These specifications play a higher role in the selection of the candidate for higher level jobs in the organisational hierarchy. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

Importance of Job Analysis   :

Importance of Job Analysis   Job analysis is so important to HR managers that it has been called the building block of everything that personnel do. 1 . Work redesign : Often an organization seeks to redesign work to make it more efficient or to improve quality. The redesign requires detailed information about the existing jobs. In addition, preparing the redesign is similar to analysing a job that does not yet exist .   2 . Human resource planning : As planners analyse human resource needs and how to meet these needs, they must have accurate information about the levels of skill required in various jobs, so that they can tell what kind of human resources will be needed. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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3. Selection: To identify the most qualified applicants for various positions, decision makers need to know what tasks the individuals must performs well as necessary knowledge, skills and abilities. 4 . Training: Almost every employee hired by an organization will require training. Any training program requires knowledge of the task performed in a job, so that the training is related the necessary knowledge and skills. 5. Performance Appraisal: An accurate performance appraisal requires information about how well each employee is performing in order to reward employees who perform well and to improve their performance if it is below the standard. Job analysis helps in identifying the behaviours and the results associated with effective performance.   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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6. Career Planning: Matching an individual’s skills and aspirations with career opportunities requires that those in charge of career planning know the skill requirements of the various jobs. This allows them to guide individuals into jobs in which they will succeed and be satisfied.   7. Promotion and Transfer: Once the job responsibilities and requirements are known, it is easier to make decisions regarding transfers and promotions based on suitability. The best fit for a position can be identified by evaluating the candidates for transfer / promotion against the results of job analysis . 8 . Compensation Management: Job evaluation used with other techniques like market surveys, provide the inputs for wage and salary administration in an organisation. Job evaluation takes into consideration the content of the job in terms of tasks, duties, responsibilities, risks, hazards, etc , which has a bearing on the compensation for performing the job Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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9. Induction: Job description provides information regarding the job and helps a new incumbent understand his tasks and responsibilities. This helps him adapt quickly to the workplace. Since roles and responsibilities are clearly delineated, he will also be able to develop and maintain more harmonious working relationships with his colleagues. 10 . Succession Planning: Succession planning involves identifying and grooming a successor for a vacancy that would arise in the future. The tasks and responsibilities of the job and the specifications of the job help in evaluating the available candidates and selecting the most suitable one Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

Job Evaluation   :

Job Evaluation   Job analysis is an orderly and systematic technique of determining of the relative worth of the various jobs within the organization so as to develop an equitable wage and salary structure. It begins with job analysis and ends up with the classification of jobs according to their worth (having a specified value, deserving). The purpose of job evaluation is to determine basic wage rates for different jobs whereas the aim of performance appraisal is to determine incentives and rewards for superior performance. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

Job Design   :

Job Design   Although job analysis is important for an understanding of existing jobs, organizations also must plan for new jobs and periodically consider whether they should revise existing jobs. When an organization is expanding, supervisors and human resource professionals must help plan for new or growing work units. When an organization is trying to improve quality or efficiency, a review of work units and processes may require a fresh look at how jobs are designed. These situations call for job design, the process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job or job design, a similar process that involves changing an existing job design.   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

Approaches to job design   :

Approaches to job design   The available approaches emphasize different aspects of the job: the mechanics of doing a job efficiently, the job’s impact on motivation, the use of safe work practices and the mental demands of the job. If workers perform tasks as efficiently as possible, not only does the organization benefit from lower costs and greater output per worker, but workers should be less fatigued. This point of view for years formed the basis of classical engineering. It is the study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximise efficiency. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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  Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Especially when organizations compete for employees, a pure focus on efficiency will not achieve human resource objectives. These organizations need jobs that employees find interesting & satisfying and job design should take into account factors that make jobs motivating to employees . Ergonomics is the study of the interface between individuals’ physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment. The goal of ergonomics is to minimise physical strain on the worker by restructuring the physical work environment around the way human body works. Ergonomics, therefore, focuses on outcomes such as reducing physical fatigue, aches and pains and health complaints. Ergonomically designed work equipment can minimize the strain on employees and this may lead to increased efficiencies. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Just as the human body has capabilities and limitations, the mind, too, have capabilities and limitations . There are ways to simplify a job’s mental demands. One is to limit the amount of information and memorization that the job requires. Organizations can also provide adequate lighting, easy to understand displays, simple to operate equipment and clear instructions. Often, employees try to simplify some of the mental demands of their own jobs by creating checklists, charts or other aids. Today most stores have cash registers that compute the change due and display that amount. The cash registers display makes the job easier. Finally, organizations can select employees with the necessary abilities to handle a job’s mental demands. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

Methods of Job Design:

Methods of Job Design Some of the popular methods used to improve the motivating potential of jobs are given below:   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Job rotation does not actually redesign the jobs themselves but moves employees among several different jobs. This approach is common among production teams. During the course of a week, a team member may carry out each of the jobs handled by the team. Team members might assemble components one day and pack products into case another day. Job Enlargement: In a job design, job enlargement refers to broadening the types of tasks performed. The objective of job enlargement is to make jobs less repetitive and more interesting. Methods of job enlargement include job extension and job rotation.   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Job Enrichment The idea of Job Enrichment or empowering workers by adding more decision making authority to their jobs, comes from Frederick Herzberg. According to his Two- Facto Theory, individuals are motivated more by the intrinsic aspects of work (for example, the meaningfulness of a job) than by extrinsic rewards such as pay. Herzberg identified 5 factors – achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility and performance – associated with motivating jobs. For a sales person in a store, job enrichment might involve the authority to resolve customer problems including the authority to decide whether to issue refunds or replace the commodity.   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Job Simplification Job design technique in which jobs are broken into relatively simple tasks. It  aims  at greater  productivity through reduced application of mental and/or physical effort. See also time and motion study . In job simplification jobs are broken in to very small parts as in assembly line operations and work can be done by same individual repeatedly and it will increase productivity and proficiency of individual. However it produces boredom and monotony in worked Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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