Chapter 3 - MPP

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Chapter -3 Different Levels of Manpower Planning :

Chapter -3 Different Levels of Manpower Planning By Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin Faculty of Human Resource Department of Business Studies Ibri College of Technology Sultanate of oman

Levels of Manpower Planning :

Levels of Manpower Planning National Level The central government plans human resources at the national level. It forecasts demand for and supply of human resources for the country as a whole. National level plan covers factors like population projections, economic development programme, educational facilities, occupational distribution of population, mobility of people, etc. The government uses population policy, education policy, etc to create a match between the demand and supply of human resources. The government of Oman has specified the objectives of human resource planning in successive five year plans. The major focus has been on education and training facilities, employment generation, health, etc. This has resulted in better and more opportunities for the Omani nationals.   Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Sectorial Level Central or State governments formulate human resource plans for particular sectors, e.g., agriculture sector, industrial sector, etc. Projections are based on government policy, rate of growth of economy and population. Industry Level Manpower plans for specific industries like textiles, cement, iron, tourism, hotels, etc. are prepared on the basis of projected operations of a particular industry. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Unit Level Manpower requirements of a particular enterprise are forecast at this level. These may be estimated department wise, job category wise, etc. The process of human resource planning should begin at the plant / branch level so as to reap the benefits of thinking of operating personnel who are in direct touch with day to day problems. Plant level manpower plans can be prepared by the operating committee. Such plans are submitted to department / divisional heads. At department / divisional level, the divisional committee will review and integrate plant level plans. The departmental / divisional plans are reviewed and integrated with manpower plans for head office staff. Special emphasis is placed at this level on management development plans. Finally the company’s manpower plan is integrated with the organisational plans. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

Limitations of Manpower Planning:

Limitations of Manpower Planning Inaccuracy : Manpower planning involves forecasting the demand for human resources and supply of human resources. Therefore, it cannot be cent per cent accurate process. Longer the time horizon, greater is the possibility of inaccuracy. Inaccuracy increases when departmental forecasts are merely aggregated without critical review.   Employee Resistance: Employees and trade unions feel that human resource planning increases their workload and regulates them through productivity bargaining. Due to this feeling, they sometime resist the process of manpower planning Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Uncertainties : Labour absenteeism, labour turnover, seasonal employment, technological changes and market fluctuations are the uncertainties which serve as constraints to manpower planning. It is risky to depend upon general estimates of manpower in the face of rapid changes in environment. Inefficient Information System : In most of the organisations, human resource information system is not fully developed. In the absence of reliable data, it is not possible to develop effective human resource plans. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Lack of Top Management Support: : In the absence of support and commitment from the top, human resource experts find it difficult to obtain vital inputs. Sometimes, the process is started with a lot of enthusiasm but is not continued due to lack of patience. Successful manpower planning flourishes slowly and gradually. In some cases, costly technologies are introduced just because competitors have adopted them. These may not give results unless matched with needs and environment of the organisation .   Time and Expense: Manpower planning is a time consuming and expensive exercise. A good deal of time and cost are involved in data collection and forecasting . Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Unbalanced Focus: In some companies, manpower planning is used as a numbers game. There is too much focus on the quantitative aspect to ensure the flow of people in and out of the organisation. Such an exclusive focus overtakes the more important dimension, i.e., the quality of human resources. Career planning and development, skill enhancement, morale, commitment, etc., are likely to suffer due to such unbalanced approach to manpower planning. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

Guidelines for Effective Manpower Planning   :

Guidelines for Effective Manpower Planning   Some of the steps that may be taken to make manpower planning more effective can be described as follows: Tailor-made: Manpower plans should be balanced with the corporate plans of the enterprise. The methods and techniques used should fit the objectives, strategies and environment of the particular organisation. Appropriate Time Horizon : The period of a manpower plan should be appropriate to the needs and requirements of the specific organisation. The size and structure of the enterprise as well as the changing aspirations of the people should be taken into consideration. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Adequate Organisation Manpower planning function should be properly organised. A separate cell, section, or committee may be constituted within the human resource department to provide adequate focus. This would help in better coordination of planning efforts at various levels in the organisation, thus increasing the effectiveness of manpower plans. Top Management Support Before starting the manpower planning process, the support of the top management should be ensured. Also the exercise of manpower planning should be carried out within the limits of a budget. There is no use formulating plans which cannot be implemented due to financial constraints. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Participation For manpower planning to be successful, active participation and coordinated efforts on the part of operating executives is required. Proper participation helps in improving the understanding of the process of manpower planning and thus reduces the resistance to the process of manpower planning.   Information System   An adequate database should be developed for existing human resources in the organisation to facilitate manpower planning for future.   . Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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Balanced Focus The quantity and quality of human resources should be stressed in a balanced manner. The emphasis should be on filling future vacancies with right people rather than just matching existing people with existing jobs. Upward mobility of existing staff needs to be considered carefully. Labour turnover should be considered according to length of service rather than merely on aggregate basis. Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin

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