Personality 101 FINAL ver 4

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Slide 1: 

Personality 101

“The search for a new personality is futile; what is fruitful is the interest the old personality can take in new activities.”~CesarePavese : 

“The search for a new personality is futile; what is fruitful is the interest the old personality can take in new activities.”~CesarePavese

Today’s objectives: : 

Today’s objectives: Define personality and explain the basic nature of personality traits. Describe the Big Five personality traits, with particular emphasis on the relationship with job performance, success on teams, and job satisfaction. Discuss specific cognitive and motivational concepts of personality, including locus of control and achievement motivation. By the end of the presentation, students will be able to:

Slide 4: 

The pattern of collective character, behavioral, temperamental, emotional, and mental traits of a person Relatively enduring Major determinants of one’s behavior Influence one’s behavior across wide variety of situations What is the Definition of Personality?

Determinants of Personality Development : 

Determinants of Personality Development Heredity Study of identical twins Assessments of newborns Genes Environment Social exposures Physiological forces Socioeconomic factors

Big Five Personality Traits : 

Big Five Personality Traits Adapted from: Exhibit 5.1 The Big Five Personality Traits

Big Five Personality Traits : 

Big Five Personality Traits Extraversion Outgoing and derives energy from being around people Conscientiousness Focuses on goals and works toward them in disciplined manner Agreeableness Easygoing and tolerant 1 2 3

Big Five Personality Traits : 

Big Five Personality Traits Neuroticism (emotional stability) Tendency to experience negative emotions such as anger, anxiety, or depression Openness to experience Seeks new experiences and thinks creatively about the future 4 5

Looking a Little CloserThe “Big Five” : 

Looking a Little CloserThe “Big Five”

Extraversion : 

Extraversion 1

The Big Five: Extraversion : 

The Big Five: Extraversion Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others. The trait is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy being with people, and are often perceived as full of energy. They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals who are likely to say "Yes!" or "Let's go!" to opportunities for excitement. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention to themselves. 1

The Big Five: Extraversion : 

Introvertsare the opposite of extraverts Introverts lack the exuberance, energy, and activity levels of extraverts. They tend to be quiet, low-key, deliberate, and less involved in the social world. Their lack of social involvement should not be interpreted as shyness or depression. Introverts simply need less stimulation than extraverts and more time alone. The Big Five: Extraversion 1

The Big Five: Extraversion : 

Phrases used by someone who is an extrovert: “I am the life of the party.” “I don't mind being the center of attention.” “I feel comfortable around people.” “I start conversations.” “I talk to a lot of different people at parties.” “I like to draw attention to myself.” “I talk a lot.” “I have a lot to say.” The Big Five: Extraversion 1

Conscientiousness : 

Conscientiousness 2

The Big Five: Conscientiousness : 

The Big Five: Conscientiousness Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement. The trait shows a preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior. It influences the way in which we control, regulate, and direct our impulses. Conscientiousness includes the factor known as Need for Achievement (NAch). 2

The Big Five: Conscientiousness : 

Positives of conscientiousness: Conscientious individuals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning and persistence. They are also positively regarded by others as intelligent and reliable. Negatives of conscientiousness: Conscientious individuals may be compulsive perfectionists and workaholics. The Big Five: Conscientiousness 2

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Phrases used by someone with Conscientiousness: “I am always prepared.” “I am exacting in my work.” “I follow a schedule.” “I get chores done right away.” “I like order.” “I pay attention to details.” The Big Five: Conscientiousness 2

Agreeableness : 

Agreeableness 3

The Big Five: Agreeableness : 

The Big Five: Agreeableness Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. The trait reflects individual differences in concern for social harmony. Agreeable individuals value getting along with others. They are generally considerate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests with others. Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature. They believe people are basically honest, decent, and trustworthy. 3

The Big Five: Agreeableness : 

Disagreeablenessis the opposite of agreeableness Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above getting along with others. They are generally unconcerned with others’ well-being, and are less likely to extend themselves for other people. Sometimes their skepticism about others’ motives causes them to be suspicious, unfriendly, and uncooperative. The Big Five: Agreeableness 3

The Big Five: Agreeableness : 

Phrases used by someone who is an extrovert: “I am interested in people.” “I feel others’ emotions.” “I have a soft heart.” “I make people feel at ease.” “I sympathize with others’ feelings.” “I take time out for others.” The Big Five: Agreeableness 3

Neuroticism : 

Neuroticism 4

The Big Five: Neuroticism : 

The Big Five: Neuroticism Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes called emotional instability. Those who score high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress. 4

The Big Five: Neuroticism : 

People who score high in this category are referred to as neurotic They are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time, which means they are often in a bad mood. These problems in emotional regulation can diminish a neurotic's ability to think clearly, make decisions, and cope effectively with stress. The Big Five: Neuroticism 4

The Big Five: Neuroticism : 

People who score low in this category are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings. Freedom from negative feelings does not mean that low scorers experience a lot of positive feelings. Frequency of positive emotions is a component of the Extraversion domain. The Big Five: Neuroticism 4

The Big Five: Neuroticism : 

Phrases used by someone who is an extrovert: “I am easily disturbed.” “I change my mood a lot.” “I get irritated easily.” “I get stressed out easily.” “I get upset easily.” “I have frequent mood swings.” “I often feel blue.” “I worry about things.” The Big Five: Neuroticism 4

Openness : 

Openness 5

The Big Five: Openness : 

The Big Five: Openness Openness is a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience. The trait distinguishes imaginative people from down-to-earth, conventional people. People who are open to experience are intellectually curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be, compared to closed people, more creative and more aware of their feelings. They are more likely to hold unconventional beliefs. 5

Slide 29: 

People with low scores on openness tend to have more conventional, traditional interests. They prefer the plain, straightforward, and obvious over the complex, ambiguous, and subtle. They may regard the arts and sciences with suspicion, regarding these endeavors as abstruse or of no practical use. . They are conservative and resistant to change. The Big Five: Openness 5

The Big Five: Openness : 

Phrases used by someone with Openness: “I have a rich vocabulary. “I have a vivid imagination. “I have excellent ideas. “I spend time reflecting on things. “I use difficult words. “I am interested in abstractions.” “I have a good imagination.” “I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas.” The Big Five: Openness 5

Targeting in on personality : 

Targeting in on personality Are we aiming at the right target?

Cognitive and Motivational Properties of Personality : 

Cognitive and Motivational Properties of Personality Cognitive properties Perceptual and thought processes Affect how one typically processes information Motivational properties Stable differences Energize and maintain overt behaviors

Cognitive and Motivational Properties of Personality : 

Cognitive and Motivational Properties of Personality

Cognitive Concepts : 

Cognitive Concepts Locus of control Tendency to attribute the cause or control of events to either Oneself Factors in the external environment Internals believe they can control what happens to them Externals believe what happens to them is more a matter of luck or fate, rather than their own behavior

Cognitive Concepts : 

Cognitive Concepts Authoritarianism Degree to which an individual believes in Conventional values Obedience to authority Legitimacy of power differences in society People scoring high on authoritarianism may be effective leaders in jobs requiring managers to make most decisions and where there are many rules governing behavior

Cognitive Concepts : 

Cognitive Concepts Self-monitoring Degree to which people attempt to present the image they think others want to see in the given situation High-self monitors want to be seen as others want them to be Low self monitors want to be seen as themselves, not as others want them to be

Motivational Concepts : 

Motivational Concepts Approval motivation Concerned about presenting one-self in a socially desirable way in evaluative situations Persons high in approval motivation tend to Be concerned about the approval of others Conform and “get along” Respond to personality tests in socially desirable ways (may fake their answers according to perceived desirability)

Motivational Concepts : 

Motivational Concepts Achievement motivation The need for achievement (n-Ach) Desire to perform in terms of a standard of excellence Desire to succeed in competitive situations Persons high in the need to achieve Set goals Accept responsibility for both success and failure Focus on task excellence rather than on power

Big Five Personality Traits : 

Big Five Personality Traits Adapted from: Exhibit 5.1 The Big Five Personality Traits

Cognitive and Motivational Properties of Personality : 

Cognitive and Motivational Properties of Personality

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