Psychology of Diversity: Ethnicity

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Psychology of Diversity: Ethnicity


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Diverse Ideas About Diversity :

Diverse Ideas About Diversity With W. Steven Saunders, Psy.D. Let's Not Forget the Hero's of 9/11

Take Out a Piece of Paper:

Take Out a Piece of Paper Write Down your First Impressions (don’t censor!) of the following photos.

What were your impressions?:

What were your impressions?

From BBC News, 5/30/2008:

From BBC News, 5/30/2008 One of South America's few remaining uncontacted indigenous tribes has been spotted and photographed on the border between Brazil and Peru. The Brazilian government says it took the images to prove the tribe exists and help protect its land. The pictures, taken from an aeroplane, show red-painted tribe members brandishing bows and arrows. More than half the world's 100 uncontacted tribes live in Brazil or Peru, Survival International says. Stephen Corry, the director of the group - which supports tribal people around the world - said such tribes would "soon be made extinct" if their land was not protected. 'Monumental crime' Survival International says that although this particular group is increasing in number, others in the area are at risk from illegal logging.

PowerPoint Presentation:

How Many of you thought, “Wow humanity has come a long way!” We aren’t trained to see humanity as “One”…

Rousseau and the “Noble Savage” Myth:

Rousseau and the “Noble Savage” Myth (From “A Supplement to Lecture 6). Consider these extracts from Rousseau, who among the major political philosophers of the Enlightenment is often cited as espousing the most sympathetic version of the noble savage myth: Men in a state of nature do not know good and evil, but their independence, along with “the peacefulness of their passions, and their ignorance of vice”, keep them from doing ill ( A Discourse... , 71-73). Natural equality disappeared “from the moment one man began to stand in need of another” ( A Discourse... , 92). The first rules of justice develop only with the existence of private property, “for, to secure each man his own, it had to be possible for each to have something” ( A Discourse... , 94). Rousseau clearly refers to distributive justice here.

A “New” idea or ??, A very Old one:

A “New” idea or ??, A very Old one Of Course any student of history knows, these arguments have been going on for Centuries, perhaps as long as mankind itself.

From “Candide” by Voltaire :

From “Candide” by Voltaire Candide and Cacambo encounter the Biglugs. The Biglugs represent the noble savage. The noble savage is a concept from Primitivism. Primitivism was a revolt against luxury, sophistication, and most of all Neoclassicism and stressed the superiority of a simple education. The Primitivists believed that man in his natural state, uncorrupted by society, was true goodness, but what Candide finds is that these people practice bestiality and cannibalism. Cacambo, reacting to mankind in his natural state, responds “indeed, the law of nature teaches us to kill our neighbor, and that’s how men behave the whole world over.” Candide felt that “it seems that uncorrupted nature is good, since these folks, instead of eating me, showed me a thousand kindnesses as soon as they knew I was not a Jesuit” (364). Therefore, Candide learned that man is not intrinsically good and that this community of noble savages is not “the best of all possible worlds.”

Voltaire lived in the 18th Century, the “Age of Enlightenment”:

Voltaire lived in the 18 th Century, the “Age of Enlightenment” The Enlightened man is “…a man who prefers to see clearly in all matters; in religion and in philosophy, he believes willingly only what he understands, and he admits that there are things he does not know; he values application above speculation, simplifies ethics as well as doctrine, and tries to direct it toward useful virtues; he likes a moderate political system that preserves natural liberty, the liberty of conscience, of speech and of the individual, reduces evil as much as possible, procures the greatest good, and places justice among the highest benefits; in the arts, he admires above all moderation and truth; he has a deadly hatred for hypocrisy, fanaticism and bad taste; he does not limit himself to detesting them, he fights them to death.”

PowerPoint Presentation:

How Does this relate? Let’s talk a moment about Prejudice.


Prejudice Prejudice a system of negative beliefs, feelings, and action-orientations regarding a certain group or groups of people Prejudicial attitudes may be positive or negative.

The Psychology of Prejudice:

The Psychology of Prejudice Levels of Prejudice Cognitive level of prejudice Emotional level of prejudice Action-orientation level of prejudice Self-justification Authoritarian Personality Frustration Scape-goating

The Psychology of Prejudice:

The Psychology of Prejudice Encompasses the feelings that a minority group arouses in an individual. These feelings may be based on stereotypes from the cognitive level but they represent a more intense stage of personal involvement. Emotional attitudes may be negative or positive. These feelings, based on beliefs about the group, may be triggered by social interaction or by the possibility of interaction.

The Sociology of Prejudice:

The Sociology of Prejudice No single factor explains prejudice. Prejudice is a complex phenomenon and is most likely the product of more than one causal agent. Sociologists tend to stress social forces and processes such as Socialization Economic Competition Social Norms


Stereotyping Stereotype An oversimplified generalization by which we attribute certain traits or characteristics to a group without regard to individual differences (“Nerd, Jock, Girly-Girl, Redneck”) Ethnophaulism A derogatory word or expression used to describe a racial or ethnic group Ethnic humor A common minority practice is to use ethnic humor as a strategy for defining one’s ethnicity positively

What are the “newest Stereotypes in the USA.”:

What are the “newest Stereotypes in the USA.”

The Influence of the Mass Media :

The Influence of the Mass Media The Influence of Television Perpetuation of Stereotypes Influencing of Attitudes The Influence of Advertising and Music Exploitation of women, violence against homosexuals Use of racial/ethnic stereotypes Musicians as role-models

Hollywood loves their “tokens”:

Hollywood loves their “tokens” Jennifer Hudson was the only Oscar Winning Actress/Actor in the movie. Why weren’t THEY getting HER coffee? Good example of leftist Hollywood racism.

Can Prejudice Be Reduced?:

Can Prejudice Be Reduced? Two basic approaches to reducing prejudice Promoting interaction between dominant and minority groups in all aspects of living, by either voluntary or compulsory means Dispensing information that destroys stereotypes and exposes rationalizations (self-justifications) Neither approach has been successful in all instances.

Diversity Training :

Diversity Training The best programs heighten awareness by providing informational insights into the diversity of cultural value orientations, as well as into the current and future demographics of employees and clients. Most valuable in broadening perceptions is the inclusion of interactive learning sessions such as role-playing demonstrations of the wrong and right handlings of situations and the creation of small groups to discuss and offer solutions to hypothetical but realistic problems.

But mostly…:

But mostly… Diversity training, especially in corporate settings typically gets good “Lip service” but does it really change the “Hearts and Minds” Often, Diversity training backfires likely causing a further entrenchment of attitudes that the training is trying to tackle in the first place.

Diversity Training Gone Wild?:

Diversity Training Gone Wild? When Diversity Training can become Indoctrination.

Can Only European/White Americans be racist?:

Can Only European/White Americans be racist? What about the Japanese reluctance to acknowledge the “Aniu” What about Genocide in Rwanda: Beginning on April 6, 1994, and for the next hundred days, up to 800,000 Tutsis were killed by Hutu militia using clubs and machetes, with as many as 10,000 killed each day.

What about… (continued):

What about… (continued) China and Tibet? China and Vietnam? North Korea? Hussien and Iraq? Iran’s Leader Ahmadinejad say’s “We don’t have homosexuals, like in your country.”

The Dictionary Definition of Racism:

The Dictionary Definition of Racism The American English Dictionary defines Racism as: 1.a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others. 2.a policy, system of government, etc., based upon or fostering such a doctrine; discrimination. 3.hatred or intolerance of another race or other races.

The Left Definition of Racism:

The Left Definition of Racism POWER + PREJUDGE = Racism Therefore, if you are a minority you can never be Racist and if you are a “White American” you can NEVER NOT be. ????????????? Hmmmmmmmm… So we have no free will then?

Racism is an idea:

Racism is an idea Prejudge and Racism is merely an idea that must be learned. It is a human problem like any other. No group holds the moral high ground on this issue any more than it can be said that one group is eternally to be blamed.

Thoughts to Ponder…:

Thoughts to Ponder… Are the Police racist or do they stop a Black Man more often than a White man? ** Here is what Chris Rock Says


Discrimination Discrimination the practice of differential and unequal treatment of others usually along racial, religious or ethnic lines

Levels of Discrimination:

Levels of Discrimination Verbal Expression Avoidance Exclusion Physical Abuse Extermination

The Leftist, “Open-Minded” Racist:

The Leftist, “Open-Minded” Racist Favorite Sayings: Some of my best friends are… If I vote for ?? If I hire?? Then am I done? I’ll do my best to help “you people.” Likely to go from their gated community, to segregated worship service, to work, to their favorite “elite” shopping center, etc., With little interaction with minorities or “others” Stepping over homeless. May espouse fervent beliefs in the equality of all people, but does little in personal life to help a single “other.”

Right-wing Racist’s who hates the group but will be compassionate to the individual:

Right-wing Racist’s who hates the group but will be compassionate to the individual May Espouse “Bigoted” beliefs, then go out his their way to help a “friend” regardless of race. How many times to George Jefferson slam the door in poor Tom Willis or Mr. Bentley’s face only to turn around and help pull them out of some trouble? Or call Tom Willis or Mr. Bentley a “Honkey.”

So What is the Cure for Racism?:

So What is the Cure for Racism? Compassion not Guilt Empathy not Sympathy Treating the “other” as an individual Approaching with an Open Mind Approaching with a humble attitude and desire to learn about an unknown culture, belief, idea, dress, etc.

Social and Institutional Discrimination:

Social and Institutional Discrimination Social Discrimination The creation of “social distance” between groups Institutional Discrimination The unequal treatment of subordinate groups inherent in the ongoing operations of society’s institutions Examples: sentencing inequalities, religious bigotry, segregated housing

The Affirmative Action Controversy:

The Affirmative Action Controversy The origin of government affirmative action policy began with Executive Order 8802 in 1941 Since 1989, a more conservative Supreme Court has show a growing reluctance to use “race-conscious remedies”

Affirmative Action, ctd.:

Affirmative Action, ctd. In 2003, a major Supreme Court decision preserved affirmative action in university admissions at the University of Michigan law school by a 5 to 4 vote, while at the same time striking down that university’s undergraduate admissions program that used a point system based in part on race.

Political Correctness and “Advancement?”:

Political Correctness and “Advancement?” Shelby Steele says we have advanced because it is political and career suicide to be a “White Supremacist” Far-Right Wing “Former” White Supremacist David Duke was destroyed by the press when he attempted to run for congress. Today he lives in the Ukraine and Lectures at a former Soviet University.

But if you happen to have the “correct politics.” :

But if you happen to have the “correct politics.” Senator Robert Byrd How do you think this wealthy, white man survived his KKK organizing and leadership?

The Moral of the story?:

The Moral of the story? If you were once in the KKK, then join the Democrat Party, move to the Far Left Politically, support Socialist ideas, and you’ll draw a nice government pension. You can say racist things and still be accepted, just ask this fellow: On Saturday (January 2008), as Sen. Barack Obama was sweeping up the South Carolina primary, former Pres. Bill Clinton was busy downplaying the significance of Obama's impending win, casting it as a function of the state's demographics and the Illinois senator's heavy African American support. "Jesse Jackson won South Carolina in '84 and '88," Clinton said at a rally in Columbia . "Jackson ran a good campaign. And Obama ran a good campaign here."

Ethnic Consciousness:

Ethnic Consciousness Phases of acculturation in political activities The Alien Phase When the political locus remains with the country of origin The Reactionary Phase When political organizations are formed to protect interests and fight discrimination The Acceptance Phase When a greater degree of cultural and structural discrimination is displayed

The Three Generation Hypothesis:

The Three Generation Hypothesis “The Law of the Return of the Third Generation” Marcus Hansen conceptualized a normal pattern of ethnic revival. The third generation, more secure in its U.S. identity, becomes interested in the ethnic heritage the second generation neglected in its efforts to overcome discrimination and marginality. Enjoy this Irish Folk song: What group today might sympathize with the plight of the Irish during the 19 th and early 20 th century migrations?


Transnationalism Transnationalism Refers to the sustained ties of persons, and networks, across national borders that result from international migration patterns and refugee flows Instead of a permanent move from one country to another, today’s immigrants retain intense, interconnected, even legitimized links than ever before.

Social Capital:

Social Capital Social Capital Refers to actual or virtual resources available to an individual group through a “durable network” of “institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition” Less successful communities display a short-term commitment to their host country and are less able to provide their members with important services

Segmented Assimilation:

Segmented Assimilation Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis that suggests a variety of outcomes among, and even within, contemporary immigrant streams This hypothesis argues that one model does not fit all groups or even all members of any group

Segmented Assimilation:

Segmented Assimilation Possible scenarios Positive scenario Groups that received favorably and possess high levels of human capital may quickly move up the socioeconomic ladder and integrate into the societal mainstream Second scenario Groups with limited resources as unable to find stable employment to earn enough income to support their children’s education Third scenario Limited assimilation where immigrant parents support their children’s educational success but reinforce traditional cultural values and thus limit their acculturation into the American youth subculture


Naturalization Naturalization After five years of continuous legal residence in the U.S., immigrants are eligible to become naturalized citizens The longer the residence in the U.S., the higher the percentage of naturalized citizens. Those who arrived in the 1970s have a higher percent of naturalized citizens than those who arrived in the 1980’s, who have a higher rate of naturalization than those who arrived in the 1990s.

Insert Figure 15.3:

Insert Figure 15.3

Ethnicity as a Social Process:

Ethnicity as a Social Process Ethnicity can be seen as a continuous variable rather than as an ascribed attribute with the two distinct categories of assimilation and pluralism. Group consciousness arises and crystallizes within work relationships, common residential areas, interests and lifestyles of working-class conditions.

Symbolic Ethnicity :

Symbolic Ethnicity Symbolic Ethnicity An occasional means for native-born U.S. residents to reaffirm their cultural heritage. These activities sometimes are carryovers from the old country, but sometimes they are of U.S. origin, as with Kwanzaa.

Current Ethnic Issues:

Current Ethnic Issues Immigration In 2006, 64 percent of the nearly 1.3 million immigrants who came to the United States entered through just six states. Opposition to current immigration Results from concern about the ability of the U.S. to absorb so many immigrants, and foreigners being perceived as gaining political control Additional concerns about immigration focus on economics including jobs, wages and services

Bilingual Education:

Bilingual Education Bilingual Education Teaching subjects in both English and the student’s native language Programs for limited-English-proficiency students (LEP) Between 1979 and 2004, the number of school-age children who spoke a language other than English at home increased from 9 to 19 percent. If current trends continue, by 2010, children of immigrants may constitute 25 percent of the total K–12 student population.

The English Only Movement:

The English Only Movement Opponents of bilingual education argue that the program encourages “ethnic tribalism”, fostering separation instead of a cohesive society. By 2007, 30 states had passed official English laws, with several other states poised to pass similar legislation. In 1996 the House of Representatives passed by a 259-169 vote a bill to make English the nation’s official language; the bill died however, when the Senate did not vote on the measure.

Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Future:

Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Future Assuming that present demographic trends continue, the Census Bureau projects a dramatic change in the composition of U.S. society by the mid-21 st century. The rapid growth of the Hispanic population, says the Census Bureau, enabled Hispanics of all races to surpass the African American population in 2000, when there were 35.3 million Hispanics and 34.7 million African Americans in theUnited States. By 2050, Hispanics will number about 102.6 million, or 24 percent of the total population.

Beyond Tomorrow :

Beyond Tomorrow The nation’s increasing diversity means continuance of the dual realities of assimilation and pluralism. A greater multiracial society could result in worse race relations or improvement through the deconstruction of rigid racial categories. As the level of education attainment rises, perhaps, so too will greater appreciation and tolerance for others.