Sources of Health Information

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Sources of Health Information:

Sources of Health Information Dr. Priya Arora Asst. Professor ACMS


HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM A mechanism for the collection, processing, analysis and transmission of information required for organizing and operating health services, and also for research and training

Provide information to health managers at various levels which is-:

Provide information to health managers at various levels which is- Reliable Relevant Up-to date Adequate Timely Reasonably complete

Health information provides data for-:

Health information provides data for- Sharing of technical and scientific information by all health personnel participating in the health services of the country Assessing the performance of the health services Assisting planners in studying current functioning and trends in demand for health services

Requirements of health information system (WHO) :

Requirements of health information system (WHO) Should be population based Should avoid unnecessary agglomeration of data Should be problem oriented Should employ functional and operational terms Should express information briefly and imaginatively Should make provision for feed-back of data

Components of health information system:

Components of health information system Demography and vital events Environmental health statistics Health status: mortality, morbidity, disability and quality of life Health resources : facilities, beds, manpower Utilisation and non- utilisation of health services: attendance, admissions, waiting lists Indices of outcome of medical care Financial statistics (cost, expenditure) related to particular adjective


USES OF HEALTH INFORMATION To measure health status of the people and to quantify their health problems and medical and health care needs For local, national and international comparisons of health status For planning, administration and effective management of health services and programmes For assessing accomplishment of objectives For assessing the attitudes and degree of satisfaction of beneficiaries with health system For research into particular problems of health and disease

Sources of health information:

Sources of health information Population census Registration of Vital Events Notification of diseases Institutional records Community surveys National Sample Survey Sample Registration System Model Registration System Disease Registers


POPULATION CENSUS “the total process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining at a specified time or times to all persons in a country or a delimited territory ” United Nations - Involves enumeration of the total population of the people in a country at a given moment of time.


POPULATION CENSUS Involves enumeration of the total population of the people in a country at a given moment of time. Usually done at fixed intervals India – once every 10 years in the first year of every decade De facto system from 1881 till 1931 De jure system from 1931 till date


REGISTRATION OF VITAL EVENTS UN defines a vital events registration system as including “legal registration, statistical recording and reporting of the occurance of, and the collection, compilation, presentation, analysis and distribution of statistics pertaining to vital events, i.e., live births, deaths, foetal deaths, marriages, divorces, adoptions, legitimations , recognition, annulments and legal separations


REGISTRATION OF VITAL EVENTS Registration keeps a continuous check on demographic changes If complete and accurate, it can serve as reliable source of health information “The Central Births and Deaths Registration Act, 1969” Compulsory registration of births and deaths in a specified period of time (21 days) Late registration permissible with nominal fine Defaulters can be punished. Fixes responsibility for reporting of births and deaths.


NOTIFICATION OF DISEASES Primarily used for prevention/control of diseases. Also a valuable source of morbidity data Notifiable diseases vary from country to country and also within the same country Operative through certain legal acts e.g. – Madras Public Health Act, 1930 Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897


NOTIFICATION OF DISEASES - Through routine and special reporting systems Routine monthly reports from health centres , hospitals, private clinics etc. Special surveys, outbreak investigations, surveillance systems for specific diseases Internationally notifiable diseases under International Health Regulations (IHR) - Cholera, Plague, Yellow fever

PowerPoint Presentation:

Limitations of Notification of diseases – Covers only small part of the total sickness in the community Under-reporting Atypical and sub-clinical cases not reported Requires advanced facilities for accurate diagnosis


HOSPITAL RECORDS Important source of health information where population based systems are not well-developed Provide data about diseases prevalent in the community Limitations Cases represent the tip of iceberg i.e. only those who seek medical care Admission policy may vary from hospital to hospital Population at risk cannot be defined


DISEASE REGISTERS A disease register requires that a permanent record be established, cases are followed up, and that basic statistical tabulations be prepared both on frequency and on survival. Used only for certain diseases – Cancers, MI, Blindness Valuable source of information for duration of illness, case fatality and survival


EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE Surveillance systems set up as part of specific disease control programmes e.g. – Polio, Malaria, Tuberculosis, Filaria Active surveillance Passive surveillance


ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DATA Data related to envirmental aspects of health –Air, water and noise pollution -Harmful food additives -Industrial toxicants -Inadequate waste disposal


HEALTH MANPOWER STATISTICS Number of doctors, nurses and other paramedical staff along with data on specialisation & place of work Used for comparison of health situation


SAMPLE REGISTRATION SYSTEM Covers a population of 6 million Started to get reliable information regarding demographic statistics during the interval between census years Dual recording system comprising of continous registration of vital events along with half-yearly retrospective survey, each providing a check on the other


NATIONAL SAMPLE SURVEY Started by central govt. in 1950-51. Continuous activity to collect data relating to social, economic and demographic aspects.


M.I.S. A two directional characteristic of information flow, with systematically designed arrangement to – - Generate - Collect - Analyze - Store - Present - Make available required information to different managerial levels for improved and timely decisions and actions


H.M.I.S. Need - Increasing utilization Increasing client satisfaction Increasing health status Induction of manpower Resource allocation Rewards / Promotions (at times for Fault finding)

PowerPoint Presentation:

HMIS: Objectives - • Strategic planning • Disease surveillance systems • Use of ICD-10 • National health database • Technical support to strengthen data analysis • Research • Use of scientific evidence based on research 



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