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Steam turbines:

Steam turbines Michał Bieniek Turbiny parowe

What exactly is the turbine?:

What exactly is the turbine? Turbine is an engine that converts energy of fluid into mechanical energy The steam turbine is steam driven rotary engine.

Some historical facts:

Some historical facts The first „turbine” was made by Hero of Alexandria in the second century In the end of XVIII century the Industrial Revolution began (in 1770 first reciprocating piston steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen and invented by James Watt started its work) The first steam turbines were constructed in 1883 by Dr Gustaf de Laval and in 1884 by sir Charles Parsons In1896 Charles Curtis received a patent on impulse turbine In 1910 was created radial turbine (Ljungstr ö m)

Construction of steam turbines:

Construction of steam turbines 1 – steam pipeline 2 – inlet control valve 3 – nozzle chamber 4 – nozzle-box 5 – outlet 6 – stator 7 – blade carrier 8 – casing 9 – rotor disc 10 – rotor 11 – journal bearing 13 – thrust bearing 14 – generator rotor 15 – coupling 16 – labyrinth packing 19 – steam bleeding (extraction) 21 – bearing pedestal 22 – safety governor 23 – main oil pump 24 – centrifugal governor 25 – turning gear 29 – control stage impulse blading

Construction of steam turbines:

Construction of steam turbines

PowerPoint Presentation:

Construction of steam turbines

How does the steam turbine work?:

How does the steam turbine work? Impulse stage – whole pressure drop in nozzle (whole enthalpy drop is changed into kinetic energy in the nozzle) Reaction stage – pressure drop both in stationary blades and in rotary blades (enthalpy drop changed into kinetic energy both i n stationary blades and in the moving blades in rotor)

Classification of steam turbines:

Classification of steam turbines a) way of energy conversion - impulse turbines - reaction turbines

Classification of steam turbines:

Classification of steam turbines b) flow direction - axial - radial c) number of stages - single stage - multi-stage

Classification of steam turbines:

Classification of steam turbines d) rotational speed - regular - low-speed - high-speed e) inlet steam pressure - high pressure (p>6,5MPa) - intermediate pressure(2,5MPa <p<6,5MPa) - low-pressure (p<2,5MPa)

Classification of steam turbines:

Classification of steam turbines f) way of energy utilisation - condensing - extraction - back-pressure

Classification of steam turbines:

Classification of steam turbines g) application - power station - industrial - transport

Advantages of turbines :

Advantages of turbines Large power achieved by relatively small size High efficiency Simple design High revolution

Break-downs could happen…:

Break-downs could happen …

… so we need experts:

… so we need experts

Bibliography:

Bibliography „Die neuzeitliche Dampfturbine” E. A. Kraft „Maszynoznawstwo” J. Kijewski, A. Miller, K. Pawlicki, T. Szolc http://www.elektrownie.com.pl/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_turbine http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/parsons/index.html http://www.taftan.com/thermodynamics/RANKINE.HTM http://books.google.com/books?id=QE1RCR4LfyQC&hl=pl