PRADEEP MANHAS

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NAME – PRADEEP MANHAS SUBMITTED TO – MR. SUNIL TOPIC – THE AGE OF Industrialization

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THE AGE OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Before the Industrial Revolution . In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, with the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing.

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But merchants could not expand production within towns. This was because here urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade .

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Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products. It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. Merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.

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CHEAPER LABOUR FROM RURAL AREAS In the countryside poor peasants and artisans began working for merchants. Cottagers and poor peasants who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering their firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for alternative sources of income. Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household.

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So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed. By working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.

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Within this system a close relationship developed between the town and the countryside. Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the countryside. This proto-industrial system was thus part of a network of commercial exchanges.

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It was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories. At each stage of production 20 to 25 workers were employed by each merchant. This meant that each clothier was controlling hundreds of workers.

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THE PACE OF INDUSTRIAL CHANGE The most dynamic industry in Britain were clearly cotton and metals. Growing at a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialization up to the 1840s. After that the iron and steel industry lead the way. With the expansion of railways, in England from the 1840s and in the colonies from the 1860s, the demand for iron and steel increased rapidly.

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By 1873 Britain was exporting iron and steel worth about 77 million pounds, double the value of its cotton export.

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A fitting shop at a railway works in England. A spinning factory in 1830.

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HAND LABOUR AND STEAM POWER In Victorian Britain there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants and vagrants moved to the cities in large numbers in search of jobs, waiting for work. In many industries the demand for labour was seasonal.

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PEOPLE ON THE MOVE IN SEARCH OF WORK.

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LIFE OF THE WORKERS The abundance of the labour in the market affected the lives of workers. As news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds tramped to the cities. Many job-seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or in night shelters. some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals; other went to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authorities.

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HOUSELESS AND HUNGARY, PAINTING BY SAMUEL LUKE, 1874

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INTRODUCTION OF A SPINNING JENNY IN 1835

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THE ENGLISH FACTORY AT SURAT

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THANKYOU

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