PRADEEP MANHAS

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NAME - PRADEEP MANHAS CLASS – 8thC

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Sailor A sailor , mariner , or seaman is a person who navigates water-borne vessels or assists in their operation, maintenance, or service. The term can apply to professional mariners, military personnel, and recreational sailors as well as a plethora of other uses. Etymologically, the name preserves the memory of the time when ships were commonly powered by sails , but it applies to the personnel of all vessels, whatever their mode of locomotion.

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1 Professional mariners 1.1 Deck department 1.2 Engineering department 1.3 Steward's department 1.4 Other departments 1.5 Working conditions 1.6 Life at sea 2 Notable mariners 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 External lin

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Professional mariners Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, each of which carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of an ocean-going vessel. A ship's crew can generally be divided into four main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, the steward's department, and other.

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Deck department An able seaman stands iceberg lookout on the bow of the freighter USNS Southern Cross during a re-supply mission to McMurdo Station , Antarctica ; circa 1981. Officer positions in the deck department include but are not limited to: Master and his Chief , Second , and Third officers. The official classifications for unlicensed members of the deck department are Able seaman and Ordinary seaman . With some variation, the Chief Mate is most often charged with the duties of Cargo Mate. Second Mates are charged with being the medical officer, in case of medical emergency. All Three mates each do Four-Hour AM and PM shifts on the bridge, when underway at sea.

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Engineering department For more details on this topic, see Engineering department . A ship's engineering department consists of the members of a ship's crew that operates and maintains the propulsion and other systems onboard the vessel. Marine engineering staff also deal with the "hotel" facilities onboard, notably the sewage , lighting, air conditioning and water systems. Engineering staff manage bulk fuel transfers, from a fuel-supply barge in port. When underway at sea, the second and third engineers will often be occupied with oil transfers from storage tanks, to active working tanks; Cleaning of oil purifiers is another regular task. Engineering staff are requireed to have training in firefighting and first aid. Additional duties include maintaining the ship's boats and performing other nautical tasks.

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Steward's department For more details on this topic, see Steward's department . A typical Steward's department for a cargo ship is a Chief Steward , a Chief Cook , and a Steward's Assistant . All three positions are typically filled by unlicensed personnel. The chief steward directs, instructs, and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals; cleaning and maintaining officers' quarters and steward department areas; and receiving, issuing, and inventorying stores. The chief steward also plans menus; compiles supply, overtime, and cost control records.

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other departments For more details on this topic, see Seafarer's professions and ranks Other . Various types of staff officer positions may exist on board a ship, including Junior Assistant Purser , Senior Assistant Purser , Purser , Chief Purser , Medical Doctor , Professional Nurse , Marine Physician Assistant , and Hospital Corpsman . These jobs are considered administrative positions and are therefore regulated by Certificates of Registry issued by the United States Coast Guard. Pilots are also merchant marine officers and are licensed by the Coast Guard.

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other departments For more details on this topic, see Seafarer's professions and ranks Other . Various types of staff officer positions may exist on board a ship, including Junior Assistant Purser , Senior Assistant Purser , Purser , Chief Purser , Medical Doctor , Professional Nurse , Marine Physician Assistant , and Hospital Corpsman . These jobs are considered administrative positions and are therefore regulated by Certificates of Registry issued by the United States Coast Guard. Pilots are also merchant marine officers and are licensed by the Coast Guard.

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The steward may requisition or purchase stores and equipment. Galley roles may include baking. A chief steward's duties may overlap with those of the Steward's Assistant , the Chief Cook , and other Steward's Department crewmembers. A person has to have a Merchant Mariner's Document issued by the United States Coast Guard in the United States Merchant Marine in order to serve as a chief steward. All chief cooks who sail internationally are similarly documented by their respective countries because of international conventions and agreements.

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Working conditions Mariners spend extended periods at sea. Most deep-sea mariners are hired for one or more voyages that last for several months. There is no job security after that. The length of time between voyages varies by job availability and personal preference The rate of unionization for these workers in the United States is about 36 percent, much higher than the average for all occupations. Consequently, merchant marine officers and seamen, both veterans and beginners, are hired for voyages through union hiring halls or directly by shipping companies. Hiring halls fill jobs by the length of time the person has been registered at the hall and by their union seniority. Hiring halls typically are found in major seaports.

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Life at sea Professional mariners live on the margins of society, with much of their life spent beyond the reach of land. They face cramped, stark, noisy, and dangerous conditions at sea. Yet men and women still go to sea. For some, the attraction is a life unencumbered with the restraints of life ashore. Sea-going adventure and a chance to see the world also appeal to many seafarers. Whatever the calling, those who live and work at sea invariably confront social isolation.

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Notable mariners Barbarossa Hayrettin Pasha (Turkish: Barbarous Hayrettin Pasha or Hazer Hayrettin Pasa ; also Hazer Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Captain-ı Delray (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. 1478 – 4 July 1546) was an Ottoman admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades. He was born on the island of Lesbos/ Mililani and died in Istanbul, the Ottoman capital.

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Merchant seamen have gone on to make their mark on the world in a number of interesting ways. Traian Băsescu , who started his career as a third mate in 1976 is now the President of Romania . Arthur Phillip joined the Merchant Navy in 1751 and 37 years later founded the city of Sydney, Australia . Merchant mariner Douglass North went from seaman to navigator to winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize in Economics. Jimmy Carter went on to become the 39th President of the United States after service in the US Navy.

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