Module 11- Section 3-narrated

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Module 11- Section 3:

Module 11- Section 3 Video Types Multimedia

Methods of Data Transfer for Video:

Methods of Data Transfer for Video Getting from the PC to the display: VGA port DVI port (Digital Visual Interface) Composite Video port S-Video (Super- video) HDMI

Multi-port card:

Multi-port card

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VGA : Used by both CRT monitors and LCD. VGA is standard analog video. Digital signals from the computer are converted to analog for transport over the cable. Uses three separate color signals. Uses a DB15SHD connector.

Composite Video:

Composite Video Combines the red, green and blue color signals into one composite analog video signal. Uses a connector that looks like a jack. The port is called the composite video port or an RGB port. Provides the least resolution and sharpness

Composite Video- sometimes used for game boxes:

Composite Video- sometimes used for game boxes

S-Video (super video)::

S-Video (super video): S-video sends two signals: Color Brightness Not as good as VGA but better than Composite Also an analog format

S-Video Cable (Fig 8-50):

S-Video Cable (Fig 8-50)

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NOTE: CompTIA calls the connector on the PC end that accepts the S-video cable the Mini Din-6 connector. S-video is commonly used to connect to CRT type televisions.

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Other imaging devices that use VGA and S-Video: VCRs and DVD players Video Projectors Document Presenters (used to show transparencies AND paper documents using a video projector)


DVI Used by many LCD panels and high definition TV receivers. DVI stands for Digital Visual Interface. DVI is digital (VGA and S-video are analog).

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DVI uses three common standards: DVI-D: all digital DVI-A: analog for backward compatibility (not common) DVI-I: interchangeable (accepts DVI-A or DVI-D)

Fig- 8-47 (DVI-D and DVI-I):

Fig- 8-47 (DVI-D and DVI-I)

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DVI-D and DVI-I can be: Single-link Dual-link Single-link supports lower resolutions than dual-link 1920 x 1200 max vs 2560 x 1600 max.

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A video adapter card that has a DVI-I output can be used with a CRT monitor by adding a Digital to Analog Video Port Converter.

Fig 8-48:

Fig 8-48

HDMI- Connecting the PC to a TV:

HDMI- Connecting the PC to a TV High-Definition Multimedia Interface: Typically used with home entertainment systems Can be connected to LCD panel with HDMI to DVI converter cable.

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HDMI is an uncompressed, all-digital signal Previous video interfaces required separate audio cables, with the vast majority of people using standard RCA L/R analog audio jacks. HDMI, with its abundant bandwidth and speed , carries not only video but also up to eight digital audio channels.

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HDMI supports standard video formats, enhanced video, and high-definition. It is also backwards compatible with DVI (Digital Video Interface). High-end graphics cards featuring a DVI port can connect to a HDMI interface via a DVI/HDMI cable.

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This is simply a cable with a DVI connector on one end and a HDMI connector on the other. As a rule, HDMI cables should not run longer than 15 feet (5 meters), or degradation of the signal could occur.

Fig 8-54 DVI-D to HDMI:

Fig 8-54 DVI-D to HDMI

High Definition Video:

High Definition Video To be labeled as high definition, a display must have at least 720 vertical lines of resolution and and aspect ratio of 16:9 (rectangular; 16 units wide by 9 units high)

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Two Common HD formats: 720 p (1280 x 720) 1080i (or p) (1920 x 1080) p: progressive scan (non-interlaced) i: interlaced

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Standard TV: 720 x 480 (approx 4:3 aspect ratio)

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Best image quality is obtained by matching the incoming signal to the native resolution of the display. When the signal is mismatched, a processor will “upconvert” or “decimate – downsample” to match

DisplayPort :

DisplayPort DisplayPort is an emerging standard that transmits both digital video and audio data. Recall that DVI transmits video only.

Video Adapter Cards and Graphics Accelerators:

Video Adapter Cards and Graphics Accelerators The main difference between a video adapter card and a graphics accelerator is that a graphics accelerator has its own processor- called a GPU (graphics processing unit). Most modern video adapter cards have a GPU.

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Video cards are distinguished by: The standard that they support (PCI, AGP, PCIe) The amount of RAM that they have The number of color bits they support

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The amount of video RAM and the number of color bits that an adapter card support will determine the number of colors that can be displayed at a given resolution.

Video RAM:

Video RAM Video RAM is semiconductor memory that is found on the graphics card. It acts independently from the system RAM.

Older Video Memory Types:

Older Video Memory Types VRAM (video RAM) and WRAM (Windows RAM) are dual-ported (can be written to and read from simultaneously) WRAM is optimized for full-motion video SGRAM : synchronous graphics RAM: similar to SDRAM (used for cache) but optimized for video

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3-D RAM : designed to enhance 3-D performance DDR-RAM : the same type of RAM used on the mainboard built into the video card. DDR stands for double data rate.

New Video Memory Types:

New Video Memory Types Newer memory types are based on DDR technology and include: “regular” DDR2 and DDR3 Graphics DDR2 and DDR3 (GDDR2, GDDR3) Most recent: GDDR5

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The main difference between successive versions of video technologies is speed. DDR versions are used for memory on the mainboard and GDDR versions are used on graphics cards.

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The difference between DDR and GDDR is again, speed! GDDR memory uses a high voltage (thus, more power) than DDR- so it runs faster.

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GDDR generates a lot more heat than “regular” DDR and is also more expensive. Those are two reasons why it is reserved for graphics cards.

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Video circuitry can be integrated into the mainboard or can be on a separate adapter card. When video is integrated onto the mainboard it usually “shares” RAM with the system. This means that there is less RAM available for the system to use-thus slowing it.

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The current technique for sharing video and system RAM is called: Dynamic Video Memory Technology

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With Windows Vista/7 there is always some sharing of system Ram with video. This is built into the operating system to support the extensive graphics of these operating systems (including the Vista Aero interface).

Color Bits:

Color Bits Each pixel on a monitor is controlled by three sub-pixels of color red, green, and blue. The intensity of the sub-colors is controlled with data that is sent to the control circuitry.

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Data is provided in bits! The more bits that are assigned to color intensity, the more colors you can have. Originally, monitors used 4-bits of data for color allowing for 16 actual colors.

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The minimum standard for color bits today is 8-bits per color which is thus, 24-bits allowing for 16,777,216 colors. 24-bit color is also called “True Color”.

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Most graphics cards 32-bits for color- which is actually 24-bit color with an additional 8-bits for detailing- so 32-bit color is also “true color”.

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A new standard is emerging that allows for 10-bits per color (RGB). This is called 30-bit color. The graphics card, the monitor, and the operating system (XP and above) must support 30-bit color for it to be used.

Projectors :

Projectors Projectors can be attached to the PC in one of two ways: Video splitter Dual monitor Through a Document presenter

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The two most important characteristics of a projector are “throw” and brightness. Throw: The throw is the size of the image at a certain distance from the screen. A long throw lens has a 1:2 ratio of screen size to distance

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The brightness of a projector is measured in lumens. The lumen rating of the projector should be matched to the size of the room. The larger the room, the higher the lumen rating should be.

KVM Switch:

KVM Switch KVM stands for Keyboard, Video and Mouse A KVM switch allows multiple PCs to share these I/O devices.

Figure 8-28:

Figure 8-28

Troubleshooting I/O :

Troubleshooting I/O What follows is a brief summary of troubleshooting techniques found at the end of Chapter 8.

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Problems with New Installations involving adapter cards: Ensure that the instructions accompanying the device have been followed Verify that the adapter card has been fully inserted in the expansion slot

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Ensure that the driver’s have been installed properly (check device manager) If problems persist, try a different expansion slot Note: The drivers for integrated ports are on the CD that came with the mainboard-these must be installed before the ports can be used.

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General Video: If the monitor power button is on but the Display is blank: Check that the cable has not come loose or is not disconnected Check brightness and contrast adjustments Swap the monitor with a known good one A flicker monitor can mean low refresh rate (CRT) failing CCFL backlight (LCD)

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A dead or very dim display is usually caused by an bad inverter. These parts are considered to be field replaceable units, but with a laptop the small parts and limited access make them tricky to replace.

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Video Card If the video card is dead or not inserted completely in the expansion slot this will show up in POST (beep code). If the display is corrupted, the video card is probably bad. If the monitor goes blank with certain applications, the video card probably does not have enough RAM.

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This is the end of Section 3 of Module 11.

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