Module 11- section 1- narrated

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Arial:

Module 11- Hard Drive Management I. Disk Management Tools II. Troubleshooting the Hard Drive III. Command Line Commands

Wingdings:

I. Disk Management Tools Windows includes several information and troubleshooting utilities. The utilities are called “management tools” and are divided into three general categories: Disk Management Tools System Management Tools File Management Tools

Calibri:

A. Defragmenter Fragmentation: condition in which files stored on a hard drive are not in contiguous (neighboring) clusters. Fragmented files slow down a system.

Blends:

Recall that a cluster (also called a file allocation unit ) is comprised of up to 8 sectors. A file is distributed over one or more clusters. Ideally, the clusters are located next to each other on the hard drive.

Module 11- Hard Drive Management:

Fragmenting occurs over time and is caused by files being written in clusters that were freed by previously deleted files.

I. Disk Management Tools:

Defragmenting is done automatically by Windows Vista and Windows 7 on magnetic drives. It is scheduled to run once a week and runs during times when the computer is idle. It is not necessary to defragment SSDs because all data is always accessed in the same amount of time.

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Defragmenting can also be done manually at any time- although in Windows 7 the Analyze option should be run to determine if defragmentation is necessary (drive is more than 70% fragmented).

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Disk Defragmenter is found in: System Tools- which can be accessed: Start> All Programs>Accessories>System Tools

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From the Tools tab of a drive’s properties window And under Storage in Computer Management The defragmenting can also be conducted form the command line using the command: Defrag C: OR Defrag D: OR Defrag /c

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The defragmenting utility requires that at least 15% of the volume being defragmented to be free to work. An “Out of Disk Space” error message will be received if the disk does not have enough room to rearrange the clusters.

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Shut down all other programs (including screen savers and anti-virus software) before starting Defrag. The Defrag main screen provides a graphical interface and Defrag generates a report when finished.

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Note that you must be logged in as an administrator to run the Defrag utility. Or, you must use an elevated command prompt to run it from a command prompt.

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Defrag Interface in Vista

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B. Chkdsk Chkdsk is also called “Error Checking” Chkdsk can scan the surface of a hard drive to look for bad sectors (magnetic media worn or damaged) It also looks for lost clusters and cross-linked files

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A lost cluster is a cluster that is marked as being used but which is not a part of any file. A cross-linked cluster is marked as being part of more than one file.

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Cross-Linked and Lost Clusters

Defrag Interface in Vista:

Chkdsk (check disk) is found: On the Tools tab of a drive’s properties window From the command line (as chkdsk)

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When used from the command line, chkdsk is more comprehensive than Error Checking. To use chkdsk from the command line, the user must be logged on as an Administrator (using an elevated command prompt).

Cross-Linked and Lost Clusters:

When used at the command line, these switches enhance the features of chkdsk: Chkdsk /f converts lost clusters to files that can be viewed with a text editor

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Chkdsk /p performs a more comprehensive scan including a test of the integrity of the magnetic media Chkdsk /r recovers readable information from bad sectors, if possible Chkdsk is a valuable tool for detecting problems with a hard drive before it causes a loss of data.

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C. Disk Cleanup Removes unnecessary files and programs to free up hard drive space The first tab of Disk Cleanup is “Disk Cleanup”- from here, empty the Recycle Bin, remove temporary Internet files, and remove other temporary files

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The second tab of Disk Cleanup is “More Options”- from here, remove programs and Windows components that have not been used in a while.

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Disk Cleanup is found: In System Tools On the General tab of a drive’s properties window

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Disk Cleanup

C. Disk Cleanup:

Windows needs approximately 15% of the hard drive space to be free to conduct defragmentation, burning of CDs and DVDs and other routine operations. Using Disk Cleanup, removing unused files, and uninstalling unused software should be done regularly.

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D. Back up: It is essential that data on the PC is protected. Back up provides one means to achieve that. Windows XP/Vista and 7 offer methods to back up data and to back up the Windows volume. These will covered in CIS-161.

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II. Troubleshooting Hard Drive Problems A. Drive not recognized in CMOS or there is a hard drive error message during POST: For both PATA and SATA: *ensure that proper ESD precautions are taken! Check that the drive has power

Disk Cleanup:

(continued from last slide) Check that all cables are on correctly and are securely attached to the mainboard and hard drive AND check for bent pins For IDE drives: Check jumper settings For a mixture of IDE and SATA: Check mainboard documentation for any special rules or restrictions

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After checking the physical setup: Check the BIOS website to find the meaning of POST error codes Check the hard drive manufacturer’s website to find FAQs and problem solving

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If all of these are OK, either the drive (or cable) is bad or the controller is bad. Try swapping a known good hard drive for the suspected bad one OR try using the suspected bad hard drive in another system using a PATA/SATA to USB converter.

II. Troubleshooting Hard Drive Problems:

B. If the full capacity of the drive is not recognized in CMOS, the BIOS may need to be updated (flashed). Limitations on hard drive size is a common limitation of a BIOS. Check BIOS manufacturer’s website.

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C. Failures related to Partitions/ System Files: (errors after POST) No Operating System Found or error messages related to missing operating system files : hard drive does not have system files or they are corrupted

After checking the physical setup::

Invalid Drive Specification : hard drive is not partitioned or the boot sector is corrupt Use an operating system repair option from the installation CD or DVD.

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D. If a drive is recognized in CMOS but does not seem to operate correctly, try a diagnostic program that is available from the drive’s manufacturer or a third party.

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A diagnostic program (such as Sea Tools) can be used to test the mainboard IDE controller as well as the hard drive.

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Restoring the operating system and data files can be done: If a full Windows backup of the entire system exists If an image exists from a third party provider such as Symantec Ghost or Runtime’s Drive Image From options on the OS installation CD/DVD

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If these don’t exist you can: Reinstall the operating system and all applications Restore data that may be on external drives Try a program such as Runtime’s GetDataBack to retrieve data from a non-functioning drive

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Connect a drive that can be accessed but not booted from as a secondary drive to transfer data to another drive.

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IDE/SATA to USB converter

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