21st century skills and music education

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21st Century Skills and Music Education ~ The New Relevance of Music Educators


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Slide 1: 

21st Century Skills and Music Education – The New Relevance of Music Teachers Joseph M. Pisano Ph.D. http://jpisano.com | http://musicpln.org | http://mustech.net MMC ~ Grand Rapids, Michigan ~January, 2011

Slide 2: 

What if music and arts education were the KEY to unlocking and transforming students into the highest paid, most ingenuitive, and most productive individuals in the 21st century? What if a solid, meaningful, and purposeful music and arts education, given by knowledgeable and enthusiastic teachers, were the catalyst to making ALL students better at ALL careers in the 21st century? IT IS and WE ARE… nothing has changed and YET… everything has changed. What If?

Core Subjects : 

Core Subjects Core Subjects as defined by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA): English, reading or language arts, world languages ARTS Mathematics Economics Science Geography History Government and Civics In 21st century education we most go beyond teaching subject matter in isolation and weave an educational experience that is interdisciplinary in nature.

21st Century Skills : 

21st Century Skills Going beyond simply content knowledge, we must begin to prepare students for the complexity of the work environment in the 21st century. (Partnership for 21st Century Skills) Critical Thinking and Problem Solving How do we analyze and evaluate problems? Are we able to look at and solve problems in traditional ways and/or non-traditional ways (“out of the box” thinking)? Communication How do we articulate our thoughts and ideas effectively using traditional forms of communications and both new and emergent forms? Collaboration Are we able to work effectively, efficiently, and respectfully with others in both traditional avenues and the new avenues that technology has provided for us? Are we able to work collaboratively with homogeneous groups as well as with diverse ones?

21st Century Skills Continued : 

21st Century Skills Continued Creativity and Innovation Are we able use a large range of creative ideas and various idea creation techniques to form new, useful, pertinent, and worthwhile thoughts and ideas? INFORMATION, MEDIA, AND TECHNOLOGY SKILLS: Information Literacy How do we access and evaluate information? How do we do so thinking about it both critically and in competent ways. How do we manage the deluge of information from almost limitless resources? Media Literacy Do we understand both how and why media messages are constructed? Are we able to create media products while using appropriate tools in the most effective ways?

21st Century Skills Continued : 

21st Century Skills Continued Information, Communication, and Technology Literacy (ICT) Are we able to effectively use technology as a tool to research, organize, evaluate and communicate information? LIFE AND CAREER SKILLS With regard to the working in the 21st century environment, people must be prepared in ways far beyond simple thinking skills and mounds of content knowledge – they must be prepared to navigate a much larger world that is also paradoxically smaller by paying attention to developing various life and career skills: Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Social and Cross-Cultural Skills Productivity and Accountability Leadership and Responsibility

Interesting? : 

Interesting? Isn’t it interesting how much of what 21st Century Skills are about are happening daily in your music classrooms and with your music students already? Remember book by Robert Fulghum? Everything I Really Need to Know I learned in Kindergarten… Perhaps, there will soon be a book with this title: Everything I Really Need to Function Efficiently in the 21st Century I learned in my Music Classes… Question: Is there a framework for understanding how to incorporate helpful 21st Century technology into our “every day” teaching? …YES

Fluid Integration Of Technology Into Teaching And Learning : 

Fluid Integration Of Technology Into Teaching And Learning TPCK (or TPACK) = Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge – A framework to understand and describe the kinds of knowledge needed by teachers for effective technology integration in their teaching. At its core, there are thee inter-twined knowledge areas: Content Knowledge (CK): Content Knowledge is knowledge about the actual subject matter that is to be learned or taught. Pedagogical Knowledge(PK): Pedagogical Knowledge is deep knowledge about the processes and methods of teaching and learning and how it encompasses overall educational purposes, values and aims. This is a generic form of knowledge that is involved in all issues of student learning, classroom management, lesson plan development and implementation, and student evaluation.

Fluid Integration Of Technology Into Teaching And Learning : 

Fluid Integration Of Technology Into Teaching And Learning Technology Knowledge (TK): Technology knowledge is knowledge about standard technologies such as books and chalk and the blackboard, as well as more advanced technologies such as the Internet and digital video. This knowledge would involve the skills required to utilize particular technologies. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Learning how to integrate, negotiate, and weave the three components of the TPCK framework (technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge) become one of the hallmarks of an effective 21st century teacher. In order for this to work well, THE TECHNOLOGY component must be both transparent and fluid… Interestingly enough, when the chalkboard, filmstrip projector, mimeograph, pen, opaque projector, and LCD projectors were new, these technologies had to be “mastered” and integrated by teachers in much the same way as today’s digital technologies.

TPCK Visualized: : 

TPCK Visualized:

Interlude: Same Old QUESTIONS And Commentary? ~ We must succeed and evolve despite the obstacles placed in front of us… : 

Interlude: Same Old QUESTIONS And Commentary? ~ We must succeed and evolve despite the obstacles placed in front of us… How am I supposed to learn all of these new technologies? My students know more than I do about the technologies. There is simply no professional development for me… anywhere. I’m retiring soon, why should I learn anything new –especially this new “fandangled” technology? I don’t have nor receive any money for this type of thing… what am I supposed to do? My college didn’t prepare me for any of this!

Answers… : 

Answers… How am I supposed to learn all of these new technologies? How do we learn anything at all? How do we learn anything at all? How do we learn anything at all? How do we learn anything at all? HOW DO WE LEARN ANYTHING AT ALL? We seek the answer. We find the answer. We repeat the answer. We find others to help us with the answer. We ask about the answer. We think about the answer. We discover the answer. We deduce the answer. We GOOGLE the answer. We are taught the answer. We learn the answer… We are educators are we not? This is what we do…


ANSWERS… My students know more than I do about the technologies. I guess the begging question to this question is simply… WHY? Are your students any more capable than you at learning new things? Did you dismiss the Internet, e-mail, LCD projectors, and digital technologies as a passing fad? At what point was a decision made that it was o.k. for students to have a solid grasp of emerging technologies and that teachers didn’t need to? Have “we” not had enough time to learn these things? It is NEVER to late to start learning these “new” things and learn them well.

Answers… : 

Answers… There is simply no professional development for me… anywhere. At one time I understood this statement as a more legitimate one than it is today. Today, there are so many avenues for learning, both traditional and non-traditional, available that there is virtually no reason for teachers NOT to be able to find available opportunities… Try consulting the oracle that is GOOGLE… The existing online, free, avenues for ongoing professional development are both large and expanding. In addition, with technologies such as SKYPE and other Social Media outlets, any expert across the country is now only a digital-”dial-up” away. Local, Statewide, and National PD opportunities are plentiful… we must not continue to wait for them to “come to us”, they are already there… take advantage of them.

Answers… : 

Answers… I’m retiring soon, why should I learn anything new? When I think of all the famous quotes ever mentioned that cover this type of thinking -only one epitomizes and comes close to my own thoughts regarding this type of statement: “Good Grief!” – Charlie Brown Should we just expire when we retire then? Henry Ford provides sage-like insight on this topic: “Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young. The greatest thing in life is to keep your mind young.”

Answers… : 

Answers… I don’t have nor receive any money for this type of thing… what am I supposed to do? Many of the new music related tools for use in music instruction are open-source or free. In addition, you no longer need to have a dedicated music lab for use with computer-aided instruction music classes or individualized learning setups. Simple, low-cost, USB-based keyboards (<$50.00 U.S.) can be used in the exiting computer labs in your schools or with older, low-end computers or laptops that you may have available through your school’s IT department. In addition, there are now hundreds of organizations that will help you write grants, find answers, or find instruments or equipment for your program.

Answers… : 

Answers… My college didn’t prepare me for any of this! Teacher preparation is getting harder to quantify as we prepare students for jobs and situations that don’t exist when they start college. We live in a time where change is as fast as it has ever been and it is accelerating. As we prepare students for the 21st century, we also must prepare ourselves by understanding the present reality of the times that our students live in and will work in. We cannot simply stay stagnate in our own educations in such a changing society. How are we to connect with our students if we are disconnected from their world? The truth is… we cannot prepare our students for everything that they will experience. We must prepare them with the tools and understanding to equip them to be life-long learners and innovators so that they can deal with what life holds for them.

What Does the Brain Have to do With It? : 

What Does the Brain Have to do With It? The Spinning Dancer Test… | An Illusion More than anything, but a tool for thinking about how the brain functions in a hemispheric way… Left Side: Right Side: Controls Right Side of the Body Controls the Left Side of the Body Good at recognizing serial events Better at parallel processing Specializes in “Text” Specializes in “Context” Analyzes Detail Synthesizes the “big picture” Number Skills Art and Music Awareness Logic Emotion As much as we would like to think of “boxing” a person as either a right-brained or left-brained thinker, the truth is that both halves are designed to work together in tandem and in co-operation with each other. We can, however, speak of people as having a particular bend or direction to thinking –psychologically speaking - Left Directed Thinking (logical) or Right Directed Thinking (Intuitive). Author, Daniel Pink, discusses these processes as they relate to success in the 21st century in one of his books: A Whole New Mind (Riverhead Trade, 2005)

Left-Directed Thinking : 

Left-Directed Thinking A form of thinking and attitude to life characteristic of a “whole brain” more left hemisphere influenced: More logical reasoning More sequential reasoning More computer-like reasoning Likely to become a lawyer, accountant, or engineer. “Ascendant in the Information Age, exemplified by computer programmers, prized by hardheaded organizations, and emphasized by schools, this approach is directed by left-brain attributes, toward left-brain results.” ~ Daniel Pink

Right- Directed Thinking : 

Right- Directed Thinking A form of thinking and attitude to life characteristic of a “whole brain” more right hemisphere influenced: More simultaneous reasoning More aesthetic reasoning More metaphorical reasoning More contextual reasoning More synthetic (or transferable) reasoning “Underemphasized in the Information Age, exemplified by creators and caregivers, shortchanged by organizations, and neglected in schools, this approach is directed by right-brain attributes, toward right-brain results.” ~ Daniel Pink

Daniel Pink’s Three Questions for a Successful Career in the 21st Century: : 

Daniel Pink’s Three Questions for a Successful Career in the 21st Century: Daniel Pink Argues that “automation” is replacing many of the “left-brain” jobs including, the legal profession, the medical profession, the accounting professions, and many of the other “white-collar” professions. If your career choice is described by the word “routine”, you must be ready to be “out-sourced”. America, because of its abundance and freedom, is uniquely situated to provide the 21st Century Skills that are now being formed, taught, and sought. Three questions to ask when considering a job or opportunity in our 21st century American society: Can someone overseas do it cheaper? Can a computer do it faster? Is what you are selling in demand in an age of abundance?

Readily Apparent Problems in American Education: : 

Readily Apparent Problems in American Education: Sir Ken Robinson summarizes one of the large problem with schools in America: “The present system was designed for 19th century industrialism and it's overheating in a dangerous way. Reforming education isn't enough. The real task is transformation. America urgently needs systems of education that live and breathe in the 21st century.” “I've lost track of the numbers of brilliant people I've met, in all fields, who didn't do well at school. Some did of course, but others only really succeeded, and found their real talents in the process, once they'd recovered from their education. This is largely because the current systems of public education were never designed to develop everyone's talents. They were intended to promote certain types of ability in the interests of the industrial economies they served.”

The Present Need for Right-Directed Thinkers… : 

The Present Need for Right-Directed Thinkers… Daniel Pink’s “the last 150 year three-act drama”: 18th Century and before  The Agriculture Age (farmers) (pre-act) 19th Century  The Industrial Age (factor workers) 20th Century  Information Age (knowledge workers) 21st Century  Conceptual Age (creators and empathizers) As we move forward into the 21st century, we must be prepared to teach our students ways to nurture and develop their so-called “Right-brained” skills and aptitudes. While “Left-brained” direction will still play an indispensible role in the 21st century person and work-force, it is no longer enough, especially in the schools of the United States. With the advent of much of the left-directed jobs being taken over by computers, cheaper labor overseas, and the subsequent disappearance of “traditional “ jobs… it is those that can think “out of the box” and creatively that will have the most to offer our society in the 21st Century .

Aptitudes of Right-directed Thinkers… : 

Aptitudes of Right-directed Thinkers… Design (not just function) – Creating something that is beautiful, whimsical, or emotionally engaging. Story (not just arguments)– Information is cheap and everywhere, we need to be able to come up with effective arguments and communicate and fashion compelling narratives. Symphony (not just focus)- Are we able to see (hear) the big picture, can we fashion tiny pieces into a new whole? Empathy (not just logic) – It is not enough to simply look at the world through or own learned systems of logic, in a much smaller, yet global world we need to better understand each other, be able to forge strong relationships, and respect differences. Play (not just seriousness) – Levity, laughter, and fun are aspects that provide incredible benefits not only to one’s profession, but also to their health. Meaning (not just accumulation) – Americans, more than anyone, live in a world of accumulated plenty. We need to add meaning to all aspects of our lives, we need to attach a purpose to all that we do and have.

Why Do We Teach Music? : 

Why Do We Teach Music? What is not the answer: To have all students become music majors and music performers of some sort…. What is the answer: We teach music and “the arts” because they are necessary in the education process for creating complete human beings that are able to have both successful, productive, and fulfilled lives in a free society. Now, more than ever, what we do , what we have always done, and what will always do as music educators IS more important than ever for preparing ALL students for their lives in the 21st Century. This is true regardless of what career path our students decide to choose.

Right-Directed Thinkers Will Rule the 21st Century. : 

Right-Directed Thinkers Will Rule the 21st Century. Learning and innovation skills (“The 4 C’s”: Creativity & Innovation, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Communication, and Collaboration) are increasingly being recognized as a skill set that separates students who ARE prepared for the 21st century work environment and those who ARE NOT. Daniel Pink Argues that it will be the MFAs and not the MBAs that will be the leaders and innovators in the 21st Century... Development of the “4 C’s” and the so-called Right-directed thinking skills are critical to master for all students. There is likely no better candidate in the educational curriculum to act as a catalyst for this than creative and innovative music programs.

Music Education the Ultimate 21st Century Skill… : 

Music Education the Ultimate 21st Century Skill… Mike Butera (MENC Executive Director) recently states the concept of Music Education importance quite eloquently in one of his writings entitled, “Music Education: The Ultimate 21st Century Skill”: “Let there be no question about it – music education is the ultimate 21st century skill. In classroom after classroom, effective educators use music to directly improve student reading and math achievement. They use it to develop the critical thinking, creativity, and other 21st century skills so prized in today's workplace. And, they use it to help cultivate student interests and strengthen student appreciation for the lessons taught in the classroom. Music education is the glue that holds our schools together, connecting all subjects and better engaging today's young people.”

Reaching the other 80% through Music and Music Technology : 

Reaching the other 80% through Music and Music Technology Professors David Williams and Rick Dammers (musiccreativity.org)have recently begun a research and information initiative to discuss the reality of how many students we are currently NOT reaching with music instruction in the middle schools and high schools. Their data shows that of all of the students in middle schools and high schools 80% of them are not participating in traditional music classes. Through their research and writings, they begin to detail ways in which we, as teachers, can have a strong impact and pedagogical influence on this frightening statistic by offering a number of highly creative “non-traditional” music courses and classroom offerings. If we are to prepare our students for life in the 21st century and all that comes with it, AND we know of the impact that music can have on developing the whole person in this regard, perhaps it is time that we begin to discuss, develop, embrace, and incorporate some of these “non-traditional” or “non-main-streamed” music education concepts into a school-wide curriculum and make them “traditional”.

21st Century Skills Map For the Arts : 

21st Century Skills Map For the Arts In July of 2010, MENC partnered with a number of Education and Arts organizations to jointly develop integrated guidelines for forging 21st Century Skills through Music and the Arts. “… This document demonstrates that the arts are among society’s most compelling and effective paths for ensuring 21st century readiness for every student.” ~ Mike Blakeslee – Chief Operating Officer of MENC

Skills Map: : 

Skills Map: Each map lists and defines a particular 21st Century Skill and then shows three examples of integration in a music or arts course/curriculum. Examples are listed in graduated progression: 4th, 8th, and 12th grade. These maps also show how 21st century Interdisciplinary Themes are integrated into the examples (Free and downloadable at http://p21.org)

Are We Prepared For Teaching in the 21st Century? Must We Integrate Technology into Everything? : 

Are We Prepared For Teaching in the 21st Century? Must We Integrate Technology into Everything? Questions to ask first about technology integration: Does the Technology allow you to accomplish a task easier or more efficiently than without it? Does the Technology allow you teach more effectively? Does the Technology allow you to do something that can not be done with out it? Does the Technology allow your students to be more efficient and better learners? Does the Technology provide a more effective means of communication than without it? Is the Technology being taught something that is basic to functioning in a 21st century world? Are we proficient at the Technology?

We Still Must Teach Music First… : 

We Still Must Teach Music First… It’s not about the technology we use… it’s about how we use the technology to educate, inspire, and communicate. Music is not a “core” function of an education just because someone or some organization states that it is… Its value is self-evident. What we do and inspire in our students as Music Educators and Arts Educators is the heart of any school, when this is removed the school curriculums become lifeless, boring, un-creative, unimaginitive, and ROUTINE. Until every student, whether public, private, or home-schooled, is afforded the right of having Music and Arts Instruction, we MUST continue our Advocacy Efforts on and at all levels.

9 Decades Left In the 21st Century… : 

9 Decades Left In the 21st Century… We will not likely see the advent of the 22nd Century; however, what we do as a Music Education Community right now, will impact the lives of our students and all that come after them in some way. It appears that educational community, more than ever, is placing great value on many of the Right-Directed thinking tasks, such as creativity and innovation, and recognizing the vital part that they play in the education of our students in 21st Century… As the education community struggles to find ways to incorporate these “new concepts” into the more established left-directed academic disciplines, we can be re-assured by this undisputable fact: WE ALREADY ARE TEACHING THESE “New” CONCEPTS TO OUR STUDENTS AS MUSIC EDUCATORS… THIS IS WHAT WE DO.

21st Century Education Leaders : 

21st Century Education Leaders Music Educators and Arts Educators have gained a new relevance in education with the global awakening and understanding of the importance of teaching to the “whole mind”. The integration of the TPACK framework into our teaching will help us become even better teachers and utilizers of technologies available to us in the 21st Century and bring our unique Right-directed thinking offerings to others. This decade, let us be encouraged and confident of our relevance in education. Let us go forward in the knowledge that what we’ve always known as important and integral to a child’s education is now at the forefront and stirring in the minds of others. “WE TOUCH THE FUTURE, WE TEACH” ~ Christa McAuliffe (paraphrase)

Selected Sources Referencedand Online URLs : 

Selected Sources Referencedand Online URLs Butera M. (2011). Music Education: The Ultimate 21st Century Skill. Christian School Products.http://www.christianschoolproducts.com/articles/2011-January/Featured-Articles/Music-Education-The-Ultimate-21st-Century-Skill.htm MENC (2010). P21 and Arts Associations Release 21st Century Skills Map. Press Release.http://www.menc.org/news/view/press-release-p21-and-arts-associations-release-21st-century-skills-map Mishra M. & Koehler J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: a Framework for Teacher Knowledge, Teachers College Record.http://punya.educ.msu.edu/publications/journal_articles/mishra-koehler-tcr2006.pdf Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2010). The ARTS 21st Century Skills Map. P21.org.http://www.p21.org/documents/P21_arts_map_final.pdf Pink D. (2005). A Whole New Mind. Riverhead Trade.http://www.danpink.com/whole-new-mind Robinson K. (2009). Transform Education? Yes, We Must. The Huffington Post.http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sir-ken-robinson/transform-education-yes-w_b_157014.html United States Dept. of Education. Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/index.html